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Flashcards in Week 2: Trait Models Deck (63):
1

Definition of trait

Broad, enduring, relatively stable characteristics used to assess and explain behaviour

2

Definition of types

Categorical, all or none tendencies

3

List the major assumptions of trait theories

1. Relatively stable and enduring
2. Some consistency and generality for each person
3. Individual differences in strength, amount, and number of traits
4. Trait theories concerned with understanding how people at different points on the spectrum behave

4

What differentiates traits from other personality approaches

- interest in personality characteristics in 'normal' people
- conscious thought
- personality causes behaviour
- little speculation about 'why'
- emphasis on degree of difference among people

5

List the historical type and trait theories

- hippocratic humours
- blood types
- physiognomy and phrenology
- palmistry
- graphology
- numerology
- body types

6

Discuss the history behind hippocratic humours

Four humours were special fluids assoc. with the four basic elements of nature, thought to permeate the body and influence it's health. An imbalance of these fluids was thought to affect individual's personality

7

List the four humours

- sanguine (blood)
- choleric (yellow bile)
- melancholy (black bile)
- phlegmatic (phlegm)

8

Describe Sanguine personality

Cheerful, optimistic, pleasant, comfortable with their work, healthful

9

Describe choleric personality

Quick, hot tempered, aggressive, yellowish complexion, tense

10

Describe melancholy personality

Pensive, depressed, pessimistic

11

Describe phlegmatic personality

Slow, lazy, dull, emotionally

12

Who developed blood type theory

Furakawa

13

Describe a Type A blood type personality

Cautious, reserved, courteous, prudent

14

Describe a Type B blood type personality

Artistic, cheery, lively, considerate, not materialistic

15

Describe a Type C blood type personality

Composed, dispassionate, strong willed, self confident

16

Discuss theory behind Sheldon's somatotypes

Personality is related to body shape, and strong development of one body element leads to corresponding personality type

17

Describe endomorphy

Development of the abdomen and digestive system

18

Describe mesomorphy

Muscles and circulatory s

19

Describe ectomorphy

Brain and nervous system

20

Endotonia

Comfort seeking, enjoys relaxation, food and socialising

21

Mesotonia

Assertive, action oriented, energetic, fearless

22

Ectotonia

Private, restrained, self aware, shy, intense

23

Definition of pseudoscience

A set of ideas or theories put forward as scientific that do not stand up to scientific analysis

24

List the main important trait theorists

- Gordon Allport
- Raymond Cattell
- Hans Eysenck
- Jeffrey Gray
- Paul Costa and McCrae
- Goldberg

25

Gordon Allport's contributions to psychology

- adopted the lexical hypothesis by Galton
- emphasised idiographic (individual) over nomothetic (group) personality aspects
- human behaviour motivated by the proprium

26

Allport's proprium

Positive, growth oriented, progressive, creative driver of human nature

27

How did Allport break traits down?

- Cardinal traits: relatively unique, defines a person, not possessed by all
- Central traits: small number of traits characteristic to person
- Secondary traits: not as apparent, often situational modified

28

Cattell's contributions to psychology

- statistical approach to personality
- surface traits
- source traits
- some traits are constitutional, some environmental

29

Constitutional traits

Originating in biology

30

Surface traits

Personality characteristics that correlate with one another, but not determined by a single source

31

Source traits

Stable, permanent, unitary personality factors

32

L data

Observer ratings of specific behaviours exhibited by subjects in real life situations

33

Q data

Self reports of subjects on questionnaires, such as personality inventories, interests and opinions

34

T data

Tests on which a person responds without knowing which aspects of behaviour are being evaluated

35

Cattell's 16 factor model

- 16 source traits as the basic factors of human personality
- measured in the 16-PF

36

Hans Eysenck

- proposed three major personality dimensions or super traits

37

What are the 'giant three' super traits?

- extraversion vs. introversion
- neuroticism vs. emotional stability
- psychoticism vs. impulse control

38

Extraversion vs. introversion

High extraversion: cheerful, sociable
Introversion: withdrawn, quiet and inhibited

39

Neuroticism vs. emotional stability

High neuroticism are worrying and anxious, low scorers opposite

40

Psychoticism vs. impulse control

High scorers on psychoticism are tough minded, ruthless

41

Describe the hierarchical approach

Supertraits are at the top of the hierarchy, and are composed of traits which are composed of habitual responses

42

What are the main properties of the FFM?

- stable over a 45 year period beginning in young adulthood
- factors and traits are heritable
- considered universal
- knowing your place on it is useful for improvement

43

What are the big five?

- Neuroticism
- Extraversion
- Openness
- Agreeableness
- Conscientiousness

44

Neuroticism

Angry, anxious, pessimistic

45

Extraversion

Adventurous, assertive, frank, sociable, talkative

46

Openness

Cultured, intellectual, willing to make adjustments in situations

47

Agreeableness

Compatibility with others, altruistic, gentle, kind

48

List some advantages of the FFM

- helped to integrate decades of personality research
- useful for profiling and categorising people
- appears to be applicable across cultures

49

List some disadvantages of the FFM

- some argue it omits important traits
- dimensions may be too broad
- optimum number of facets to model personality still unclear
- 'view of a stranger'

50

Briefly describe Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory

Personality is made up of motivational tendencies

51

BAS

Behavioural activation system: reward sensitivity and approach motivation

52

BIS

Behavioural inhibition system: anxiety as a balancing tendency

53

FFFS

Fight-flight-freezing- system: punishment sensitivity and avoidance motivation

54

Cattell's constitutional traits

Originating in biology

55

Cattell's environmental traits

Physical and social environment

56

Conscientiousness

Considerate, competent, dutiful, orderly and responsible

57

Graphology

Handwriting analysis

58

Palmistry

Palm reading

59

Numerology

Looking at important numbers in someones life

60

Physgnomy

Using facial and body characteristics to infer personality

61

Lexical hypothesis

All the tools we need to understand personality are contained in the language we use to describe it

62

Idiographic

Sitting down and trying to understand someone in order to learn about their personality

63

Nomothetic

Group aggregated; means, comparisons, and spreads of data