Week 5: Humanistic theories Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5: Humanistic theories Deck (37):
1

What were the three concepts Marcia focused on?

Committing, identity, and crises

2

What is a crisis?

Experiencing conflicts, setbacks, and threats to the self that lead you to question your identity by exploring other pathways in life

3

What are some limitations of Marcia's model?

- criticised for lack of empirical support and not following a sequence
- difficult model to study objectively

4

What is commitment?

Deciding on an identity as a framework for personality, roles, and values

5

What are the four identity statuses?

- identity achievement
- foreclosure
- moratorium
- identity diffusion

6

Commitment + crisis experienced

Identity achievement

7

Commitment + no crisis

Foreclosure

8

No commitment + crisis experienced

Moratorium

9

No commitment + no crisis

Identity diffusion

10

Identity diffusion

An attempt at an identity has not been made, or has failed. Associated with conflict, anxiety and depression.

11

Foreclosure

Latching on to an identity before you have really thought about it or other options. Acceptance without sufficient questioning.

12

Moratorium

The person is starting to question things and starting to experience things as a process of growth

13

Identity achievement

You've set on the identity and personality that can be genuine for you

14

List the assumptions of humanistic theories

- optimism, choice, creativity
- drive for self actualisation
- expressive needs
- free will
- people's capacity to change themselves
- focus on present

15

What are the characteristics of humanistic psychology?

- focus on higher human functions
- humans are active
- here and now
- idiographic
- self determination

16

List Maslow's needs

- physiological needs
- safety needs
- belongingness needs
- self esteem needs
- self actualisation

17

Physiological needs

Directly related to survival, including hunger, thirst, elimination and sleep

18

Safety needs

Need for structure, security and predictability

19

Belongingness needs

Need for friends and companions, supportive group, intimate relationships

20

Esteem needs

- recognition from other people: appreciation, prestige, reputation
- self esteem: desire for competency, mastery, achievement

21

Self actualisation need

The desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming

22

Characteristics of the self actualised

- acceptance of self
- admit weaknesses
- no excessive guilt
- feel good about self
- less restricted by social norms
- more peak experiences

23

Criteria for self actualisation

- absence of psychological disorders
- motivated by values
- fully exploited talents
- more basic needs satisfied

24

What is the consequence of having the need for self actualisation?

- devoid of values
- lack of fulfilment
- lose meaning in life

25

What are Roger's core concepts?

- person centred approach
- empathy, reflection, unconditional positive regard
- people aim to fulfil potential
- everyone born with actualising tendency

26

Actual self

The way people actually see themselves

27

Ideal self

How people would like to see themselves

28

Self discrepancy theory

People with psychological problems see their actual selves as different from their ideal selves

29

Peak experiences

- feelings of joy or ecstasy in being alive
- realising that one is fully using their potential
- insight and completeness

30

Limitations of Maslow's approach

- unscientific
- overly optimistic view of human nature
- concepts biased towards Western culture

31

Briefly describe Roger's early life

- grew up in financially successful, highly religious family
- spent adolescent years on a farm which is where he became interested in science
- a trip to asia in college was highly influential

32

List Roger's main concepts

- person centred approach
- empathy, unconditional positive regard and self actualisation
- people aim to become fully functioning humans

33

Describe the actualisation tendency

- we are all striving for self actualisation
- helps us progress toward development
- fosters personal growth
- guides people toward autonomy and self sufficiency

34

List some limitations to phenomenological approaches

- past relatively ignored
- gaps in coverage
- unconscious experienced is ignored
- romantic vision
- inadequate attention to nomothetic concerns

35

Phenomenology

Less about symptomology, more about thinking about things from the client's perspective. Perception is interpretive and individuals move through the world according to their world view.

36

Characteristics of humanistic psychology

- people can only be understood through their frame of reference
- higher human function rather than biological drives
- idiographic over nomothetic
- human beings are seen as active

37

What was Roger's approach to counselling?

Encouraging the client to take charge of the sessions, while the therapist responds to the client's statements in a non-directive supportive manner