Flashcards in Week 6: Psych Assessment/Post-Freudian Deck (59):
What caused a rift between Freud and Jung?
Jung's psychology of the unconscious - each were unable to admit the other could be wrong
What is the collective unconscious?
Reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge with which we are all born
What does the collective unconscious contain?
- emotions inherited from our ancestors
What are archetypes?
Forms or symbols that are manifested by all people in all cultures
List some examples of collective unconscious
- experiences of love at first sight
- deja vu
- creative experiences
- near death experience
- parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies and literature
What are archetypal behaviours?
Typical, eternally repeated behaviours among human beings
What are the four main archetypes?
- the self
- the persona
- the anima and animus
- the shadow
Describe the self
The archetype that represents the transcendence of all opposites, so that every aspect of personality is expressed equally. The goal of life is to realise the self.
Describe the persona
- the mask you put on before you show yourself to the world
- your public image
When can problems occur between the persona and the self?
When there is disconcordance between them - when our persona differs too much from our self - psychopathology like anxiety or depression can occur
What is meant by anima/animus?
- we are initially neither male or female
- society gradually moulds us into either
Female aspect in the collective unconscious of men
Male aspect in the collective unconscious of women
Describe the shadow
- from our prehuman, animal past
- dark side of the ego and the evil we are capable of; contains animal urges
- can be a source of creativity
List some other archetypes
- father and child
- the hero
- faithful animal
Describe the mother archetype
Our ability to recognise the relationship of mothering; if our own mother failed to meet the demands of the archetype, it may be that they spend time in the church, ocean, motherland, or meditating with mary
When did Jung say major personality changes take place?
Between the ages of 35 and 40
How does personality develop in the first half of life?
We focus on the objective world
How does personality develop in the second half of life?
We focus on fulfilling our capacities
What is meant by individuation?
Becoming a whole being: the need to integrate the contents of the unconscious with the conscious mind
What were Jung's main tools for assessment and therapy?
Free association, world association and dream analysis
What is free association?
Saying whatever comes to mind
What is word association?
Saying the first thing that comes to mind when you hear a specific word
What is dream analysis?
Interpreting dreams, looking for symbolism, etc
What are Jung's psychological types?
- introverted vs. extroverted
- thinking vs. feeling
- intuition vs. sensation
Describe someone who is extroverted (Jung)
- focus on external world
- external activities and social involvement
- more energised when around people
- don't like spending too much time alone
Describe someone who is introverted (Jung)
- focus on inner, subjective world
- more interested in thinking and reflecting
- reading & ideas
Describe a thinking person (Jung)
Intellectual cognition, forms logical conclusions, conscious calculation, reason, rational processes
Describe a feeling person (Jung)
Subjective, emotional evaluation, gut feelings, empathic
Describe someone driven by intuition (Jung)
Unconscious drives, abstract, theoretical, future orientated, trust insight, more subjective
Describe someone driven by sensation (Jung)
How we sense the world, through our senses, how we know something exists, information that is tangible
How many personality combinations did Jung come up with?
What are some criticisms of Jung's personality types?
- based on clinical observation
- hypothetical theory and difficult to verify
List some ways of evaluating personality
- physiological recordings
- intelligence tests
What are the three common personality tests?
- big 5
Briefly describe some differences between Freud and Jung
- different ideas about the libido and religion
-Jung deemphasised sexual development and focused on the collective unconscious - Jung's work = more mystical and scientific
- Freud said complexes arise due to childhood traumas; Jung said that these come from the collective unconscious
Briefly describe Jung's theory of personality
- symbolism and culture
- conscious relationship with unconscious forces
Becoming a whole being; integrating the contents of the unconscious with the conscious mind
The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results
Define test-retest reliability
Measure of stability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group
Define inter-rater reliability
Used to assess the degree to which raters differ in their decisions
Define internal consistency
Used to evaluate the degree to which different test items that probe the same construct provide consistent results
How well a test measures what it is supposed to
Define face validity
A measure appears to be assessing the intended construct under study
Define construct validity
Does it measure what it is supposed to and not other variables?
Define criterion validity?
Used to predict future or current performance and correlate test results with other criterions of interest
What is the MBTI?
The Myers Briggs Trait Inventory is a self report questionnaire created by Katherine Cook Biggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs-Myers. It includes introversion and extroversion, sensing and intuition, thinking and feeling, and perceiving and judgement.
Describe an introvert (MBTI)
- expends energy through action
- prefers to reflect before and after action
- needs quiet time to rebuilt energy
- thought oriented
- seeks depth of knowledge
- prefers substantial interaction
Describe an extrovert (MBTI)
- draws energy from action
- motivation declines if inactive
- needs breaks from reflection to rebuild energy
- prefers frequent interaction
- gets energy and recharges from being with people
Describe a sensing person (MBTI)
- more likely to trust tangible info
- distrust hunches
- prefer details and facts
- meaning is in the data
Describe an intuitive person (MBTI)
- more likely to trust info that can be associated with other and is not reliant on symptoms
- more interested in future possibilities
- meaning is in underlying theory and principles which are manifested in the data
Describe a thinking person (MBTI)
- tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint
- logical, reasonable, causal and consistent
- concern for the truth
- has trouble interacting with people who are illogical
Describe a feeling person (MBTI)
- tend to become to decisions by associating or empathising with the situation from an internal view
Describe a perceiving person (MBTI)
Preference for sensing and intuition
Describe a judgemental person (MBTI)
Preference for thinking or feeling
Describe the construct validity of the MBTI
- should be four clusters
- factors should be independent
- should be small measurement error
Describe the verdict of the usefulness of the MBTI
There is no evidence that the MBTI measures anything of value and no evidence for the utility of the test
Reliability of the MBTI
Profiles not change over time, because type theory is based on innate tendencies