Week 3: Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3: Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective Deck (65):
1

List the characteristics of the behavioural approach

- key role of learning and experience
- behaviour is situation specific
- minimal use of theoretical constructs
- parsimonious explanations

2

Key role of learning and experience

Behaviour develops and changes primarily through learning and experience (accumulation of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning)

3

Behaviour is situation specific

Consistency of behaviour depends on the situation in which the behaviour is performed

4

Minimal use of theoretical constructs

Behavioural theories tend to use relatively few concepts and assumptions

5

Parsimonious explanations

Remembering and forgetting are explained by the same principle: the presence of appropriate stimuli

6

List the prominent behaviourists and their theories

- Watson: radical behaviourism
- Pavlov: classical conditioning
- Skinner: operant conditioning
- Bandura: social learning

7

Pavlov

Interested in the idea of innate personality variables. Viewed this as strong vs. weak cortical excitation and inhibition

8

Watson

Idea that individuals are more shaped by learning experiences than by inherited or innate temperament

9

Operant conditioning and personality

Quality of actions are reinforced

10

What are three of Bandura's social learning theories?

- observational learning
- reciprocal determinism
- self efficacy

11

Explicit self reinforcement

Treating yourself to something as a reward

12

Implicit self reinforcement

Personal feelings of approval or disapproval, often informed by a sociocultural framework

13

How does observational learning work?

1. Observer exposed to the modelling cues
2. Observer acquires modelling cues by paying attention and memorising them
3. Observer uses modelling cues as a guide for action, which results in imitation or counter imitation

14

Counter imitation

Avoiding doing something that you have seen punished previously

15

What were the main takeaways from the bobo doll study?

- Children who saw the doll attacked attacked the doll
- more likely to attack if violence was rewarded
- behaviour inhibited by punishment
- behaviour did not generalise to hitting other children

16

Live models

Parents, siblings, teachers, friends

17

Symbolic models

Novels, comics, television, film, video games

18

What is triadic reciprocal determinism?

Three factors (behaviour, personal variables, and environment) can influence and be influenced by each other

19

Perceived self efficacy

The expectation that you are capable of learning or performing particular behaviours that will result in desirable outcomes

20

What are the four sources of self efficacy information?

- Performance accomplishments
- Vicarious experience
- Verbal persuasion
- Emotional arousal

21

Summarise Julian Rotter

- contemporary of bandura
- more explicitly cognitive focus
- the way that cognitive processes mediate decision making and learning experiences

22

What are four important constructs that Rotter came up with?
P
R
E
B

- psychological situation
- reinforcement value
- expectancy
- behaviour potential

23

Describe psychological situation

The existing situation from each individual's perspective

24

Describe reinforcement value

A person's preference for a particular outcome or reinforcer

25

Describe expectancy

Expectations about the chances that a particular behaviour will result in a given reinforcer

26

Describe behaviour potential

The likelihood that a person will engage in a behaviour - are there any obstructions or drivers?

27

What is locus of control?

A person's view of the source of his or her outcomes

28

What is an internal locus of control?

The belief that outcomes are the result of our own efforts and resources

29

What is an external locus of control?

The belief that outcomes are due to outside forces over which we have no control

30

List the correlates of locus of control

- information seeking
- achievement
- dealing with others
- physical health
- psychological adjustment

31

List Mischel's criteria, or cognitive person variables
C
E
E
S
S

- competencies
- encoding strategies and personal constructs
- expectancies
- subjective values
- self regulatory systems and plans

32

What is meant by competencies

Skills developed throughout life

33

What is meant by encoding strategies and personal constructs

Constructs such as schemas, attitudes, and worldview that shape experiences

34

What is meant by expectancies

Assumptions regarding how one event will lead to another event, how others will act in response to events, and how behaviours lead to outcomes

35

What is meant by subjective values

Values that shape outcomes that are sought

36

What is meant by self regulatory systems and plans

Setting goals and creating and modifying plans to move towards these goals

37

What does schema theory suggest?

People form mental schematics to organise knowledge and integrate meaning

38

What is a self complexity?

When aspects of the self are distinct, and each has it's own place in self image

39

What is an entity schema?

A trait or ability is seen as an entity that they possess more or less of; is not changeable

40

What is an incremental schema?

A trait or ability is seen as something that can be grown or modified incrementally through training, experience, and effort

41

Briefly describe the cognitive behavioural approach

Situational thoughts and actions accumulate and through learning processes result in personality as personal continuity

42

Describe a top down view of personality

Focused on genes, traits and temperament

43

Describe a bottom up view of personality

Focussed on the nurture perspective, learning, experiences and growth

44

Burrhus Skinner

- operant conditioning
- behaviour is primarily determined by consequences
- only the external environment influences behaviour

45

What are qualities?

General themes in behaviour

46

List examples of qualities

- effort
- creativity
- concentration
- attentiveness
- speed

47

List two criticisms of the operant approach

- overly simplistic view of personality and humans
- rigidly deterministic stance

48

List three contributions of the operant approach

- many practical benefits
- applicable to forensic and org psych
- useful and effective intervention procedures in childhood psych and adult behavioural problems

49

Performance accomplishments

Wehn we perform competently at a task, our efficacy expectations are strengthened

50

Vicarious experience

By observing others succeeding at a task, we develop expectations that we might be able to also succeed

51

Verbal persuasion

Being told by others that we can succeed increases our efficacy expectations

52

Emotional arousal

People rely on their state of physiological arousal to judge their level of anxiety and efficacy

53

Treatment and self efficacy

- therapeutic interventions that strengthen self efficacy are effective
- effective treatment enhances clients expectations of efficacy
- efficacy is necessary to generalise mastery to outside a therapeutic setting

54

Social learning process

The likelihood that a person will engage in a behaviour is determined by reinforcement value and expectancy

55

What are the functions of a schema

- provides mental shortcut for setting expectations
- easier encoding in memory
- informs assumptions that fill in gaps

56

What is a self schema

The mental schematic everyone has of themselves

57

High self complexity

Associated with better functioning

58

Low self complexity

Self schemas where there are indistinct boundaries between difference aspects of self, which can lead to distress spilling over into different aspects, e.g. from work to home life

59

Proximity to self

We hold different qualities, roles, ambitions, loved ones etc close to who we are

60

Dual process models

Idea that we have two processing pathways - one deliberate and one intuitive

61

Rational, conscious....

Effortful, explicit, intelligence based

62

Emotional, unconscious...

Automatic, implicit, emotion based

63

How could internal locus of control be maladaptive?

Blaming themselves for everything even though there are always things we can't control

64

How could external locus of control be maladaptive?

Can be maladaptive due to a lack of responsibility

65

What is the purpose of cognitive person variables

They are the 5 criteria that any adequate personality theory needs to address