Week 1: Kinematics Flashcards Preview

Fall 2014: Anatomy & Kinesiology > Week 1: Kinematics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1: Kinematics Deck (45):
1

What is the application of the principles of mechanics to the living human body?

Biomechanics

2

What is kinetics?

Forces that produce or resist mvmt like gravity

3

What is kinematics?

- How we describe motion
- direction and quality of motion
-Types of motion or mvmt w/o regard for the forces that produce that motion

4

What are 2 types of kinematics?

1. Osteokinematics
2. Arthrokinematics

5

What is gross mvmt of the bones at a joint?

Osteokinematics

6

Describe arthrokinematics

Small mvmts occurring w/in the joint and joint surface

7

Circumduction is a joint action (T/F)

False: Circumduction is a combo of mvmts

8

Name the 3 planes and how they cut the body

1. Sagittal --> divides into R/L
2. Frontal/coronal --> divides into anterior/posterior
3. Horizontal/transverse --> divides into upper/lower

9

What mvmt is seen in sagittal plane? (2)

-primarily flexion/extension
-exception is thumb which abducts/adducts

10

What mvmt is seen in frontal plane? (4)

- Primarily abduction/adduction
- Radial/ulnar deviation of wrist
- Flexion/extension of thumb
- Lateral flexion of neck and trunk

11

What mvmt is seen in the transverse plane? (2)

- External/internal rotation
- Pronation/supination

12

Name the 3 axis

1. Medial -lateral
2. Vertical
3. Anterior -Posterior

13

Describe orientation of medial-lateral axis

- axis is parallel to frontal plane
- mvmt is in the sagittal plane (mostly flex/extend)

14

Describe orientation of vertical axis

- axis is oriented up and down like a pole thru your head to feet
- mvmts occur in the horizontal/transverse plane (like cervical rotation)

15

Describe orientation of anterior/posterior axis

- axis is parallel with sagittal plane
- mvmts occur in frontal plane

16

Mvmt generally occurs in one plane (T/F)

False
Mvmt usually occurs in multiple planes and at various axis

17

What are the 2 types of osteokinematics and which is more common?

1. Translatory motion
2. Rotary motion (more common but they usually occur together)

18

What is translatory motion?

- Motion occurs along or parallel to an axis
- All points travel the same distance, same direction, same velocity at the same time

19

What is rotary motion?

- Motion occurs in a circle around an axis
- Move at different velocities, and velocity varies depending on the distance from the axis of motion

20

Explain degrees of freedom (DOF)

- number of planes that a joint moves w/in or the axes of a joint

21

What is the max DOF?

3

22

How many DOF does a hinge or pivot joint have?

- 1 DOF
- joint moves in 1 plane, around 1 axis

23

What type of joints are condyloid, ellipsoid and saddle joints and how many DOF do they have?

- biaxial
- 2 DOF = move in 2 planes around 2 axes

24

Describe and name a triaxial joint

- joint moves in 3 planes, around 3 axes
- 3 DOF
- Ex. ball and socket (shoulder + hip)

25

Describe circumduction

• Motion in which the moving segment follows a circular path
• Combination of all three planes of motion
- occurs in triaxial joints

26

How many DOF does the forearm have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

1 DOF
pivot joint

27

How many DOF does the wrist have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

- 2 DOF
- ellipsoidal joint
- flex/extend; ulnar and radial deviation

28

How many DOF does the CMC have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

- 2 DOF but 3 mvmts
- flex/extend; abduct/adduct; opposition
- saddle joint

29

How many DOF does the MCP have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

- 2 DOF
- flex/extend; abduct/adduct
- condyloid joint

30

How many DOF does the knee have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

- 2 DOF
- flex/extend; abduct/adduct
- condyloid joint

31

How many DOF does the proximal/distal interphalageal have?
-->What kind of joint is it?
-->What are the functions?

- 1 DOF
-flex/extend
-hinge joint

32

What is a valuable clinical measurement tool used to define the quantity of joint motion?

Goniometry

33

What is open chain and give an example?

- distal segments move independently in space
- ex. reaching up above your head

34

What is a positive of open chain and a positive of closed chain?

- open chain: increases flexibility and variation of mvmt
- closed chain: increases stability of joint; usually will not get hurt in this position

35

What is closed chain and give an example?

- distal segments are fixed and proximal segments move in unison
- Ex. pushup or squat

36

Is arthrokinematics voluntary mvmt?

No, it is not voluntary but it is vital for normal joint function and mobility

37

What is arthrokinematics?

- Looks at the way that two articulating joint surfaces move on each other
- looks at the structure and function

38

What are Synarthrodial joints and give an example?

- Stabilizing joints which allow for little movement
- ex. sutures of skull

39

Describe diarthrodial joints

o Primarily provide mobility and not very stable
o Surrounded by synovial membrane and joint capsule
- Ex. knee

40

What type of joint provides both stability and mobility?

- amphiarthrodial joint
- both fibrous and hyaline cartilage like vertebrae discs

41

Describe the 2 layers in joint capsule of diarthrodial joints

1. stratum fibrosum = outer, thicker layer for stability
2. stratum synovium = inner thinner layer; highly vascularized, produces and secretes synovial fluid

42

What are the 3 mvmts w/in arthrokinematic joint?

1. rolling
2. sliding
3. spinning

43

What position provides the max surface area contact in a diarthrodial joint?

close packed

44

Where are the proprioceptors for the joint angle located?

stratum fibrosum

45

What joint position allows for rolling, spinning, and sliding?

open packed