Week 3: Muscles Flashcards Preview

Fall 2014: Anatomy & Kinesiology > Week 3: Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 3: Muscles Deck (62):
1

What type of connective tissue (CT) attaches muscles to bones?

tendons

2

What type of CT attaches bones to bones for stability around a joint?

ligaments

3

Name the type of bone that makes up 80% of our skeleton?
-->Name 3 of its characteristics (layer, contains, function)

Cortical bone
1. Compact, outer layer
2. Contains blood vessels and nerves
3. Resists tensile forces

4

What is cancellous bone?
-->function and what does it contain

- inner layer of bone with thin columns called trabeculae and contains red or yellow bone marrow
- aka spongy bone
- resists force from multiple directions

5

What type of CT protects bony surfaces and tolerates high loading but is vulnerable to excessive rapid loads?

cartilage

6

What type of cartilage is the most common and located where 2 joints come together?

Hyaline or articular cartilage

7

Hyaline cartilage is innervated and has a blood supply (T/F)

False
- nutrition comes from fluid w/in joint

8

Where is fibrocartilage found (4)?

Present in the vertebrae (discs), pelvis (pubic symphysis), jaw, knee (meniscus)

9

What type of cartilage makes up our nose and ears?

elastic cartilage

10

What type of ligament resistance provides the most protection for the joint?

When ligament is taut

11

What 2 types of CT are made of collagen fibers that are organized in a parallel manner?

ligaments and tendons

12

Name 2 protective measures they body has to protect from shearing near tendons.

- bursae
- tendon sheaths

13

What is the difference b/w kinesthesia and position sense?

Kinesthesia = awareness of dynamic joint motion
Position sense = awareness of static position

14

What is proprioception?

Use of sensory input from receptors in muscle spindles, tendons, and joints to discriminate joint position and joint mvmt

15

List the 4 factors that are important for maintaining postural equilibrium.

1. Proprioception
2. Somatosensory receptors
3. Vestibular receptors
4. Visual system

16

What are some causes of muscle weakness (3)?

Lesions w/in the CNS, PNS, or muscular system

17

What symptom do LMN lesions typically cause?

flaccidity bc muscles are not receiving msgs

18

What symptom do UMN lesions typically cause?

• Complete lesion causes spasticity
• Incomplete lesion causes muscle weakness

19

What are the primary and secondary causes of muscle damage?

Primary = contusion (bruise) or rupture of muscle belly
Secondary = inactivity and disuse of muscle due to primary injury

20

What is dystonia?

Syndrome dominated by sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing abnormal postures, twisting or writhing mvmts, and repetitive abnormal postures

21

Describe the 2 types of tremors

1. resting tremor = occurs in a body part that is not voluntarily activated and is supported against gravity (parkinson's)

2. intention tremor = occurs when individual attempts purposeful mvmt of an extremity (cerebellar lesions)

22

How is dystonia different from tone?

dystonia has sustained muscle contractions

23

What are some symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury?

o Symptoms can include pain, tingling, numbness, weakness due to atrophy of the muscle from loss of innervation

24

What is Cerebral Palsy?

o Group of motor disorders that generally result from damage to the developing brain

25

What is a CVA?

o When blood supply to an area of the CNS is disrupted

26

What areas will be affected by basal ganglia disorders?

- motor planning esp. the initiation and execution of mvmt
- Parkinson's

27

What would you see w/cerebellar disorders?

o Issues with motor control, balance, coordination

28

What test do doctors use to to record muscle contraction and relaxation during a mvmt or joint position?

EMG

29

What muscle action is occuring when the rate of mvmt is constant?

Isokinetic

30

Explain concentric mvmt

 Occurs as the muscle shortens and the muscle’s proximal and distal insertion points move closer towards each other

31

What mvmt occurs when there is NO change in the joint angle?

isometric

32

Muscle action that occurs as muscle lengthens and the muscle’s points of insertion move away from each other

Eccentric

33

What type of mvmt only occurs in a lab setting?

Isotonic
-bc constant tension throughout the motion

34

True or False: Muscles often work alone

False

35

What is an agonist?

Facilitate or assists

36

What is an antagonist?

Inhibits or opposes

37

What is a synergist?

It provides a near identical or identical help to the agonist

38

Which is most common: agonist, antagonist, synergist?

Synergist

39

What is the term for the force of load that is applied to the body, body segment, or muscle?

Stress

40

The resulting deformation from stress?

Strain

41

Type of stress that "presses together"?

Compression

42

Type of stress that "pulls apart"?

Traction

43

Type of stress that is the "twisting of an object"

Torsion

44

Type of stress that is "parallel forces of an object"?

Shearing

45

What is the term for the resistance to an external force that causes permanent deformity?

Viscosity

46

What is the term for the ability of tissue to return to its original state following deformation?

Elasticity

47

Quicker loads have what effect on deformation?

Quicker load=quicker deformation

48

Increased loading time has what effect on deformation?

Increased LT=Increased deformation

49

Higher loading has what effect on deformation?

Higher loading=increased deformation

50

Increased temperature has what effect on the deformation capacity?

Increased temperature=increased deformation capacity

51

Decreased temperature has what effect on the deformation capacity?

Decreased temperature=decreased deformation capacity

52

Lower loading has what effect on the speed of shortening contraction?

Lower loading=increased speed of shortening contraction

53

Higher loading has what effect on the speed of the shortening contraction?

Higher loading=decreased speed of shortening contraction

54

The range from which deformation will return to the original state?

Elastic Range

55

The point where permanent deformation begins to occur?

Elastic Limit

56

The range from which permanent deformation follows loading?

Plastic Range

57

The point where tissue failure occurs?

Failure Point

58

What is the term for the capacity of muscle to produce force?

Muscle strength

59

What is the term for the distance in which the muscle is capable of shortening after elongation as far as a joint allows?

Functional Excursion

60

This muscle excursion occurs when a muscle is fully lengthened?

Passive Insufficiency

61

This muscle excursion occurs when a muscle is contracted through full ROM?

Active Insufficiency

62

Tendonesis is an example of what kind of muscle excursion?

Passive Insufficiency