Flashcards in Week 3: Muscles Deck (62):
What type of connective tissue (CT) attaches muscles to bones?
What type of CT attaches bones to bones for stability around a joint?
Name the type of bone that makes up 80% of our skeleton?
-->Name 3 of its characteristics (layer, contains, function)
1. Compact, outer layer
2. Contains blood vessels and nerves
3. Resists tensile forces
What is cancellous bone?
-->function and what does it contain
- inner layer of bone with thin columns called trabeculae and contains red or yellow bone marrow
- aka spongy bone
- resists force from multiple directions
What type of CT protects bony surfaces and tolerates high loading but is vulnerable to excessive rapid loads?
What type of cartilage is the most common and located where 2 joints come together?
Hyaline or articular cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is innervated and has a blood supply (T/F)
- nutrition comes from fluid w/in joint
Where is fibrocartilage found (4)?
Present in the vertebrae (discs), pelvis (pubic symphysis), jaw, knee (meniscus)
What type of cartilage makes up our nose and ears?
What type of ligament resistance provides the most protection for the joint?
When ligament is taut
What 2 types of CT are made of collagen fibers that are organized in a parallel manner?
ligaments and tendons
Name 2 protective measures they body has to protect from shearing near tendons.
- tendon sheaths
What is the difference b/w kinesthesia and position sense?
Kinesthesia = awareness of dynamic joint motion
Position sense = awareness of static position
What is proprioception?
Use of sensory input from receptors in muscle spindles, tendons, and joints to discriminate joint position and joint mvmt
List the 4 factors that are important for maintaining postural equilibrium.
2. Somatosensory receptors
3. Vestibular receptors
4. Visual system
What are some causes of muscle weakness (3)?
Lesions w/in the CNS, PNS, or muscular system
What symptom do LMN lesions typically cause?
flaccidity bc muscles are not receiving msgs
What symptom do UMN lesions typically cause?
• Complete lesion causes spasticity
• Incomplete lesion causes muscle weakness
What are the primary and secondary causes of muscle damage?
Primary = contusion (bruise) or rupture of muscle belly
Secondary = inactivity and disuse of muscle due to primary injury
What is dystonia?
Syndrome dominated by sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing abnormal postures, twisting or writhing mvmts, and repetitive abnormal postures
Describe the 2 types of tremors
1. resting tremor = occurs in a body part that is not voluntarily activated and is supported against gravity (parkinson's)
2. intention tremor = occurs when individual attempts purposeful mvmt of an extremity (cerebellar lesions)
How is dystonia different from tone?
dystonia has sustained muscle contractions
What are some symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury?
o Symptoms can include pain, tingling, numbness, weakness due to atrophy of the muscle from loss of innervation
What is Cerebral Palsy?
o Group of motor disorders that generally result from damage to the developing brain
What is a CVA?
o When blood supply to an area of the CNS is disrupted
What areas will be affected by basal ganglia disorders?
- motor planning esp. the initiation and execution of mvmt
What would you see w/cerebellar disorders?
o Issues with motor control, balance, coordination
What test do doctors use to to record muscle contraction and relaxation during a mvmt or joint position?
What muscle action is occuring when the rate of mvmt is constant?
Explain concentric mvmt
Occurs as the muscle shortens and the muscle’s proximal and distal insertion points move closer towards each other
What mvmt occurs when there is NO change in the joint angle?
Muscle action that occurs as muscle lengthens and the muscle’s points of insertion move away from each other
What type of mvmt only occurs in a lab setting?
-bc constant tension throughout the motion
True or False: Muscles often work alone
What is an agonist?
Facilitate or assists
What is an antagonist?
Inhibits or opposes
What is a synergist?
It provides a near identical or identical help to the agonist
Which is most common: agonist, antagonist, synergist?
What is the term for the force of load that is applied to the body, body segment, or muscle?
The resulting deformation from stress?
Type of stress that "presses together"?
Type of stress that "pulls apart"?
Type of stress that is the "twisting of an object"
Type of stress that is "parallel forces of an object"?
What is the term for the resistance to an external force that causes permanent deformity?
What is the term for the ability of tissue to return to its original state following deformation?
Quicker loads have what effect on deformation?
Quicker load=quicker deformation
Increased loading time has what effect on deformation?
Increased LT=Increased deformation
Higher loading has what effect on deformation?
Higher loading=increased deformation
Increased temperature has what effect on the deformation capacity?
Increased temperature=increased deformation capacity
Decreased temperature has what effect on the deformation capacity?
Decreased temperature=decreased deformation capacity
Lower loading has what effect on the speed of shortening contraction?
Lower loading=increased speed of shortening contraction
Higher loading has what effect on the speed of the shortening contraction?
Higher loading=decreased speed of shortening contraction
The range from which deformation will return to the original state?
The point where permanent deformation begins to occur?
The range from which permanent deformation follows loading?
The point where tissue failure occurs?
What is the term for the capacity of muscle to produce force?
What is the term for the distance in which the muscle is capable of shortening after elongation as far as a joint allows?
This muscle excursion occurs when a muscle is fully lengthened?
This muscle excursion occurs when a muscle is contracted through full ROM?