Week 10: Spine and Trunk Flashcards Preview

Fall 2014: Anatomy & Kinesiology > Week 10: Spine and Trunk > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 10: Spine and Trunk Deck (107):
1

An abnormal curvature of the cervical vertebrae?

Lordosis

2

An abnormal curvature of the thoracic vertebrae?

Kyphosis

3

Abnormal curving of the spine

Scoliosis

4

This protects the SC, organs, breathing, transmits loads, stabilizes and mobilizes?

Spine

5

This portion of the spine functions to absorb shock, bear weight, and mobilize the trunk?

Anterior portion

6

The anterior portion of the spine includes what 2 structures?

body
intervertebral disc

7

This portion of the spine functions to protect the SC, bear weight, and stabilize?

Posterior portion

8

The posterior portion of the spine includes what structure?

spinous process

9

These joints within the spine allow for flexion, extension, and torsion; likewise, they interlock for stability

Facet joints

10

The point where 1 vertebrae touches the next?

facet joints

11

Two structures within the intervertebral discs

Nucleus pulposus (middle)
annulus fibrosus (surrounding)

12

Describe the axis of rotation in the intervertebral disc

Anterior with flexion
Posterior with extension

13

In the intervertebral disc, how does rotation impact the flexion and extension on the NP?

it decreases it

14

What 2 areas of the back are common for herniations?

1. Cervical
2. Lumbar

15

With a herniation in the back, which structure is being pushed out?

Nucleus pulposus

16

What are the main differences between the structure of the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical vertebrae?

lumbar: body is larger for more support
thoracic: more facets for greater articulation with the spine
cervical: transverse foramen for sympathetic nervous system

17

All motion in the spine is limited by what 3 structures?

1. capsule
2. facet joints
3. portions of the annulus fibrosis

18

What limits spinal extension?

vertebrae

19

What is the closed pack position of the spine?

spinal extension

20

What ligament limits cervical rotation and extension?

Alar Ligament

21

What 2 structures limit cervical extension?

trachea
esophagus

22

What angle are the facets of the cervical spine at?

45*

23

What portion of the skull does C1 meet? What about C2?

C1- Occipital condyles
C2- Dens of C1

24

What is the atlas? What is the axis?

atlas is C1
axis is C2

25

Most prominent spinous process of the cervical vertebrae?

C7

26

This motion extends the upper cervical and flexes the mid to lower cervical vertebrae?

Protraction of the jaw

27

This motion flexes the upper cervical and extends the mid to lower cervical vertebrae?

Retraction of the jaw

28

When measuring the cervical vertebrae, where do we measure from?

external auditory (acoustic) meatus

29

What is the closed pack position for cervical spinal motion?

70* extension

30

Attachment sites for STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID?

O: sternum and clavicle
I: mastoid process of temporal bone

31

What is the innervation for STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID?

spinal accessory N

32

With a protracted forward position, what is overactive?

sternocleidomastoid

33

Actions (4) of STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID?

1. ipsilateral flex neck
2. contralateral rotation of neck
3. flex lower neck
4. extend upper neck/head

34

Attachment sites for SCALENE group?

O: TP of cervical vertebrae
I: anterior 1st rib; posterior 2nd rib

35

Actions (3) for SCALENE group

1. lateral flex neck
2. elevates the 1 and 2 rib
3. flex neck

36

What does the SCALENE group stabilize?

C spine
Upper ribs

37

What is the scalene group an accessory to?

respiration

38

Innervation of SCALENE group

cervical spinal nerves

39

This group is also known as the "posterior triangle"

Scalene Group

40

What angle are the facets of the thoracic spine at?

60*

41

What makes the thoracic vertebrae unique?

they have costal facets which allow for articulation with the ribs

42

Why are the thoracic vertebrae more oriented in the frontal plane?

so more lateral flexion can occur

43

The rib cage is connected to which part of the spine?

thoracic (T1-T12)

44

How many ribs are there?

24 ribs total
- pairs 1-7: true (articulate with the sternum)
- pairs 8-10: false (articulate with cartilage)
- pairs 11&12: floating (no articulation)

45

2 main functions of the rib cage

breathing
protections

46

5 muscles that make up the rib cage musculature? Which 2 articulate directly on the ribcage?

1. intercostals
2. diaphragm
3. abdominals
4. sternocleidomastoid***
5. scalene group***
***articulate directly on ribcage

47

Action of the external intercostals vs. the internal intercostals?

External- elevate ribs and contralaterally rotate trunk
Internal- depress ribs and ipsilaterally rotate the trunk

Functions for respiration

48

Attachment of the INTERCOSTALS

Ribs to ribs

49

Innervation of the INTERCOSTALS?

Intercostal N.

50

Action of the DIAPHRAGM?

Depresses during inspiration allowing for more lung expansion

51

Innervation of the DIAPHRAGM?

Phrenic N. (3,4,5 keep you alive)

52

Attachments (3) of the DIAPHRAGM?

1. L1-L3
2. lower 6 ribs
3. xiphoid process

53

True or false? Inspiration and expiration are both active movements only?

False, Expiration is passive and active

54

What 4 muscles help with inspiration?

1. Diaphragm
2. external intercostals
3. scalenes
4. SCM

55

What 2 muscles help with expiration?

1. internal intercostals
2. abdominals

56

Is the thoracic or lumbar spine more stable? More mobile?

stable- thoracic
mobile- lumbar

57

What is the function of the lumbar spine?

flexion
also helps translate load into pelvis and lower extremity ("gate keeper")

58

What is the function of the thoracic spine?

rotation

59

What angle are the facets of the lumbar spine at?

90*

60

Where is the greatest motion of flexion/extension in lumbar spine?

Lumbosacral joint (L5-S1)

61

Attachments (3) of the RECTUS ABDOMINIS?

1. xiphoid
2. pubis
3. costal cartilage of ribs 5-7

62

What 2 structures does the RECTUS ABDOMINIS stabilize?

Rib cage
Pelvis

63

Actions (3) of RECTUS ABDOMINIS?

1. Flex trunk
2. PPT
3. Lateral flexion

64

Innervation of all the abdominal muscles?

Intercostal N.

65

Attachments (5) of the TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS?

1. Inguinal L.
2. Iliac Crest
3. Thoracodorsal Fascia
4. Lower Ribs
5. Abdominal Aponeurosis

66

Action of the TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS?

Compression of the abdominal cavity

67

Actions (4) of the EXTERNAL abdominals?

1. lateral flexion
2. contralateral rotation
3. flex trunk
4. PTT

68

Attachments of the EXTERNAL Abdominal ?

Illiac Crest
abdominal aponeurosis
ribs 5-12

69

Actions (4) of INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS?

1. lateral flexion
2. IPSILATERAL rotation
3. flex trunk
4. PTT

70

Attachments of ERECTOR SPINAE GROUP?

Pelvis and ribcage
spine and mastoid process

71

Actions (3) of ERECTOR SPINAE GROUP?

1. Extend neck and trunk
2. APT
3. Lateral flexion of neck and trunk

72

Innervation of ERECTOR SPINAE GROUP?

Spinal N.

73

Actions (4) of MULTIFIDUS?

1. extend trunk
2. APT
3. lateral flex
4. contralateral rotation

74

Where is the MULTIFIDUS located?

lower back

75

What 4 bones make up the pelvic girdle?

1. ilium
2. ischium
3. sacrum
4. pubis

76

What is nutation? Counternutation?

Nutation: anterior tilt of sacrum to ilium
Counter: posterior tilt of sacrum

Counter is closed pack
Nutation is open packed

77

What is the SI joint?

Where the sacrum meets the ilium

78

What happens from sit to stand in regard to your pelvic position?

sitting (posterior pelvic) to standing (neutral/anterior)

79

What happens in the lumbar spine with an anterior vs. posterior pelvic tilt?

Anterior: spine flexion
Posterior: spine extension

80

Proximal stability is need for?

distal mobility

81

T/F: pelvic stability and posture effects the LE and UE but not the jaw?

False

82

5 factors that can influence posture

1. Patient factors
2. psychological
3. sensory systems
4. musculoskeletal systems
5. methods and measurements

83

How does trunk co-contraction occur? What muscles are working anteriorly? Posteriorly?

isometric co-contraction of agonist and antagonist
posteriorly: erector spinae and multifidus
anteriorly: transverse and oblique abdominals

84

What is the term for the downward directional force of gravity through the body towards the earth?

Center of Gravity

85

What is the term for the area on the earth between ones feet?

base of support

86

What is the term for the movement of the body in static position in order to maintain static standing balance?

postural sway

87

6 things that make up the "line of gravity" in proper standing posture?

1. mastoid process
2. anterior shoulder
3. Through COG (S2)
4. posterior to hip
5. anterior knee
6. 5-6 inches anterior to the ankle

88

In standing posture, what is happening to the abs, hip, and back?

abs pull up
hip flexors pull down
hip extensors pull down
back muscles pull up

89

What is torticollis and wry neck?

unilateral SCM tightness resulting in ipsilateral extension, ipsilateral lateral flexion and contralateral rotation

90

What is the cervical impact if there is increase capital extension ?

suboccipital extensors shorten resulting in pain and tension headaches

91

What is the cervical impact if there is an exaggerated lordosis?

tightening of spinal extensors, scalenes, upper trap, and levator scapulae

92

What is a TMJ dysfunction?

dysfunction of the synovial articulation between the mandible and temporal bone

- can be caused by poor posture
- can effect: headache, pain, decreased ROM, decreased ability to chew

93

What is thoracic outlet syndrome?

When the scalene group compress the neurovascular bundle that pass between the anterior and middle fibers
-commonly caused by forward head postures
- effect: UE weakness, pain, tingling, numbness

94

What are the shoulder and thoracic impacts of the protracted or forward jaw posture?

- tight chest muscles
- overlengthening of middle back muscles
- Thoracic: kyphosis
- Shoulder: protracted and elevated
- scapular: abducted, upward, winging

95

What is diaphragmatic breathing?

deep breathing that expands the abdomen instead of the chest

96

What is shoulder impingement?

pinching of muscles/tendons supraspinatus/biceps) or the subacromial bursa in the coracoacromial arch during shoulder elevation

97

What happens in the kinematic chain as a result of "flat back"

PPT
hip extension
knee flexion
foot pronation

98

What happens in the kinematic chain as a result of "hyper lordosis"

APT
Increase thoracic kyphosis
increase cervical extension
knee hyper extension

99

This vertebrae is parallel with the spine of the scapula?

T3

100

This vertebrae is in line with dimples?

S2

101

This vertebrae is in line with the iliac crest?

L4

102

This vertebrae is in line with the nipples?

T4

103

This vertebrae is in line with the inferior angle of the scapula

T7

104

This vertebrae is in line with where the last rib articulates

T12

105

What 4 movements do we test for in a hip muscle test?

flexion
extension
abduction
ER

106

What 2 movements do we test for in a scapula muscle test?

adduction
downward rotation

107

What 3 movements do we test for in shoulder muscle tests?

ER
IR
Horizontal abduction