Week 2: Kinetics Flashcards Preview

Fall 2014: Anatomy & Kinesiology > Week 2: Kinetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2: Kinetics Deck (46):
1

What is the term for the displacement of a body or one of it's segments from one point to another?

Motion

2

Linear motion is also known as what type of motion?

Translational Motion

3

Movement around an axis is known as this type of motion?

Rotational Motion

4

Movement around joints is usually what kind of motion?

Rotational

5

True or False: Movement is a combination of rotational and translational?

True

6

Linear or Translational Motion is measured in what?

Meters AND/OR feet per second

7

Rotational Motion is measured in what?

Degrees (for ROM) per second

8

What is the term for the distance that a force moves a body?

Magnitude

9

True or False: Direction of motion cannot be positive and negative

False

10

What is the term for the rate at which the body or segments move?

Velocity

11

What is the term for a push or pull that produces displacement?

Force

12

What is the term for the motion of a body or segment that occurs when force is applied?

Displacement

13

What is the term for when a system is in balance?

Equilibrium

14

What is the term for the amount of matter contained within an object?

Mass

15

True or False: Mass is a variable amount

False, it is constant

16

What is the term for the force of gravity on an object which changes depending on gravitational pull?

Weight

17

What is the term for the elements that produce force on bone segments by active contraction and passive stretching?

Muscles

18

Four primary forces?

1. Gravity
2. Muscles
3. Externally Applied Resistance
4. Friction

19

What is the result of force acting at a distance from the point of motion or the axis

Moment

20

What is the moment equation?

Moment = distance x force

21

What is the force equation?

Force = mass of an object x acceleration of an object

22

2 elements that help express "force"?

1. Magnitude
2. Rate of change

23

Law of Inertia/Equilibrium?

Newton's Law (Law #1) that states that a body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion until an outside force acts upon it

24

Newton's second law of motion?

The acceleration of a body is proportionate to the magnitude of the forces acting on it and inversely proportionate to the mass of the body
--> a greater force is required to move a larger mass

25

Newton's third law of motion?

For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force

26

What is the term for a simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates around a fulcrum or axis?

Lever

27

3 elements of mechanical levers?

1. Axis
2. Resistance Arm (RA)
3. Force Arm (FA)

28

First class lever?

Axis is in the middle of the FA and RA

29

Second class lever?

The RA lies between the axis and the FA; the RA is always closer to the axis than the FA

30

Why does the RA have the advantage in a second class lever?

Because with its location closer to the axis, larger weights can be moved using smaller amount of force

31

Third class lever?

The FA lies between the axis and RA; the RA is longer than the FA so it has the advantage

32

What's the most common lever type in the body?

Third

33

What is the equation for calculating mechanical advantage?

Force Arm length/Resistance Arm length

34

What is mechanical advantage?

the ability to counter resistive forces in a lever system

35

FA>RA

greater than 1
2nd class

36

FA

less than 1
3rd class

37

FA=RA

equal
1st class

38

What is torque?

The rotary force around an axis

39

True or False: Torque is greater near the axis; as opposed to further out?

False; Torque is greater further out

40

True or False: if torque is the same, force required near the axis is greater than further out?

True

41

What's the term for the point where the mass of the body is equally distributed; it is constantly changing?

Center of Mass (COM)

42

What's the term for the direction where the mass of the body is equally distributed against gravity; this cannot be controlled

Center of Gravity (COG)

43

What's the term for the area that has the greatest amount of stability within the body?

Base of Support

44

For the greatest amount of stability, what two things must be close to one another?

COG and BOS

45

With regards to levers, what is the resistance force?

Weight

46

With regards to levers, what is the force arm refer to?

Moving force