Week 138 - Testicular Lump & Bone Pain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 138 - Testicular Lump & Bone Pain Deck (30):
1

What viruses are linked to testicular cancers?

Mumps - leads to testicular atrophy

2

What tumour markers are tested for in suspected testicular tumours?

  • AFP
  • β-hCG
  • LDH
  • NSE
  • CEA

2

What antracyclines are used in chemotherapy and how do they work?

  • Doxorubicin
  • Epirubicin

They intercalate with the DNA strand and block the action of topisomerase

3

When should the PSA test not be performed?

  • Presence of retention
  • Presence of infection
  • After instrumentation to the lower urinary tract

4

What chemicals are associated with an increase in testicular cancers?

 

  • Oestrogen linked with cryptorchidism
  • Pesticides 
  • Agent orange
  • Dimethylformamdie

 

4

What is alpha-fetoprotein

  • Embryonic protein
  • Produced by the yolk sac and foetal liver
  • Non-seminoma tumour

 

  • Raised in liver damage
  • Marker of hepatocellular carcinoma

 

4

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

  • Obstructive voiding symptoms
  • Irritative symptoms
  • Blocked ejactuilatory ducts (haemospermia)
  • Impotence

 

5

What are the 5 main causes of extra-testicular masses?

  1. Hydrocoele
  2. Epididymal cyst
  3. Spermatocoele
  4. Varicoele
  5. Epididymitis/ orchitis

 

6

What antimetabolites are used in the treatment of cancers?

  • Fluorouracil
  • Methotrexate
  • Capecitabine
  • Gemcitabine
  • Azathioprine

 

7

What pathology is seen in the picture below?

Hydrocoele

8

What are the risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours?

  • Cryptochidism
  • Testicular atrophy
  • Inguinal hernia
  • Hydrocoele
  • Syndromes with abnormal testicular development such as Klienfelters, XY dysgenesis or Down's

9

What age group are solid tumours of the testicle most likely to present? 

Young men aged 20-34 years old

 

10

What tumours does a raised LDH indicate?

  • Advanced testis cancer

12

What imaging test is used to diagnose testicular cancer?

Ultrasound

13

What alkylating agents are used in chemotherapy?

  • Mechloretamine
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Ifosfamide
  • Melphalan

 

13

What are the indications for performing the PSA test?

  • LUTS suggestive BPH
  • Prostate feels abnormal on DRE
  • Patient concernced about prostate cancer

 

14

What pathology is seen in picture below? 

Varicocoele

16

What are the 2 main types testicular germ cell tumour?

  1. Seminoma
  2. Non-seminoma

17

What is the PEB chemotherpay regieme consist of?

  • Cisplatin
  • Etoposide
  • Bleomycin

 

18

What antimicrotubule drugs are used in the treatment of cancers?

  • Taxanes;  paclitaxel and docetaxel
  • Vinca alkaloids; vincristine and vinblastine

 

20

What testicular tumours are seen in older men?

  • Spermatocystic seminoma
  • Testicular lymphoma

21

What is the clinical presentation of testicular cancer?

  • Painless swelling of the testis
  • Heavy sensation or dull ache
  • 10% testicular pain
  • Enlargement in atrophic testis

22

What is the most common type of testicular cancer?

Testicular Germ cell tumour

24

25

What is β-hCG?

  • Product of trophoblastic tissue in placenta
  • In GCT - product of syncytiotrophoblast
  • Seminomas and non-seminomas
  • Also in upper GI, bladder and bronchial tumours

 

26

What platinum derivatives are used for chemotherapy and how do they kill tumour cells?

  • Cisplatin
  • Carboplatin

They form adducts with DNA strands and break them causing cell death

27

What pathology is seen in the picture below?

Epididymal cyst

28

What pathology is seen in picture below?

Spermatocoele

29

What genes have been linked to an increase risk of testicular cancer?

  • p53
  • RB gene

 

30

How do aklylating agents work?

They form covalent bonds with DNA, interfering with replication