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Advanced clinical practice: examining the complex patient > Week 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (125)
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1

What are the measurements taken at the systemic veins?

- Jugular venous distention
- Venous pulse
- Central line
- Central venous pressure
- PvO2

2

What are the measurements taken at the systemic arteries?

- Pulse palpation for HR, heart rhythm, patency of blood vessel
- BP
- Pulse oxygen or O2 saturation
- Arterial line: BP, PaO2, cardiac output or index

3

What are the measurements taken at the R heart?

- ECG
- Heart rate
- Heart rhythm
- Heart sounds

4

What are the measurements taken at the pulmonary arteries?

- Swan Ganz catheter: pulmonary artery BP, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

5

What are the measurements taken at the lungs using inspired air?

- Breath frequency
- Tidal volume
- Lung sounds

6

What are the results of physiologic measures used to do?

- The need to refer the patient to a physician
- Establish intervention goals
- Developing an intervention plan
- Assess the individual response to intervention

7

What is body mass index (BMI)?

A measure of body composition

8

What are high BMI values associated with?

• Hypertension
• Dyslipidemia (abnormalities of blood lipids)
• Type 2 diabetes
• Coronary heart disease
• Stroke
• Gallbladder disease
• Osteoarthritis
• Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
• Cancer
– Endometria
– Breast
– Prostate
– Colon cancer

9

What comorbidities have a high BMI has the primary risk factor?

• Dyslipidemia (abnormalities of blood lipids)
• Type 2 diabetes
• Coronary heart disease

10

What percent of the USA population is overweight or obese?

66.3%

11

When should BMIs be assessed?

As part of the initial examination of all patients older than 2 years old, regardless of the reason for the visit

12

What BMI percent is considered overweight for children?

Greater than 85%

13

What BMI percent is considered obese for children?

Greater than 95%

14

For individuals over 20, what BMI is considered underweight?

Less than 18.5

15

For individuals over 20, what BMI is considered normal?

18.5-25

16

For individuals over 20, what BMI is considered overweight?

25-30

17

For individuals over 20, what BMI is considered obese?

30 and above

18

What are some approaches that have been shown to be effective in reducing BMI?

- Increased physical activity
- Behavior modification
- Dietary modification

19

What is blood pressure?

The force driving the blood through vascular system

20

In what situations is a catheter placement in the artery used to measure BP?

In the acute setting with more severely ill patients

21

When is resting BP measured?

At initial evaluation

22

What are the signs and symptoms of hypotension or hypertension?

– Headache (usually occipital and present in the morning)
– Vertigo (dizziness)
– Flushed face
– Spontaneous epistaxis (nosebleed)
– Blurred vision
– Nocturnal urinary frequency

23

What is considered an elevated BP?

Greater than 200/110 mmHg at rest

24

When is BP considered a medical emergency?

No BP or an extremely low BP

25

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age 3-6?

Minimum: 80/50
Maximum: 116/76

26

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age 6-9?

Minimum: 84/55
Maximum: 122/78

27

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age 10-13?

Minimum: 84/55
Maximum: 126/82

28

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age 14-19?

Minimum: 90/60
Maximum: 142/86

29

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age 20-60?

Minimum: 90/60
Maximum: 150/90

30

What is the minimum and maximum BP for patients age ?60?

Minimum: 90/60
Maximum: 160/95