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Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (94)
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1

What are the general health effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Fatigue
• Unexplained weight change
• Weakness

2

What are the psychological/ cognitive effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Personality changes
• Memory loss
• Confusion
• Irritability

3

What are the gastrointestinal effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Anorexia
• Dysphagia
• Diarrhea
• Constipation

4

What are the urogenital effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Impotence
• Intermittent urine stream
• Dribbling
• Straining to void

5

What are the MSK effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Muscle weakness and cramps, • Arthralgias
• Myalgias
• Stiffness
• Bone pain

6

What are the sensory effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Paresthesia
• Numbness

7

What are the dermatologic effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Foot ulcerations
• Edema
• Dry, coarse skin
• Impaired wound healing

8

What are some miscellaneous effects that can be caused by the endocrine system?

• Temperature intolerance
• Visual changes
• Orthostatic hypotension
• Increased bruising
• Increased thirst

9

What is the main function of the endocrine system?

Maintain body homeostasis through the coordination of chemical messages called hormones, which relay information instruction between cells

10

What do hormone signaling pathways do?

They regulate cellular activity and target organs throughout the body

11

The endocrine system work in coordination with the nervous system to regulate what? metabolism, water and salt balance, BP, res

Metabolism, water and salt balance, BP, response to stress, and sexual reproduction

12

___ is the largest endocrine gland in the body

*Adipose tissue* is the largest endocrine gland in the body

13

What are the endocrine glands of the body?

• Hypothalamus
• Adrenals
• Pancreas (islets of langerhans)
• Ovaries
• Testes
• Thyroid
• Parathyroids
• Pituitary anterior and posterior lobe

14

What is psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)?

The study of the complex series of interactions where the endocrine system meets the nervous system that links behavioral, neural, endocrine and immunologic responses

15

How does the hypothalamus exert control over the anterior(adrenal hypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) portions of the pituitary gland?

By either hormonal or nervous signals

16

What controls the secretions by the posterior pituitary?

Nerve signals that originate in the hypothalamus and terminate in the posterior pituitary

17

What controls the secretions by the anterior pituitary?

Hormones called hypothalamic releasing and hypothalamic inhibitory hormones/factors secreted within the hypothalamus and conducted to the anterior pituitary through the hypothalamic hypophysial portal vessels

18

The _____ receives signals from many sources in the nervous system and is considered the center for . maintaining the body's homeostasis

The **hypothalamus** receives signals from many sources in the nervous system and is considered the center for . maintaining the body's homeostasis

19

When can an endocrine disorder be considered as primary?

When excess or deficiency of secretions affects the gland

20

When can an endocrine disorder be considered as secondary?

When excess or deficiency of secretions affects the pituitary gland with altered secretion. This can also occur as a result of chemotherapy, surgical removal of glands, therapy of a non-endocrine disorder like in the case of cushing syndrome

21

When can an endocrine disorder be considered as tertiary?

When excess or deficiency of secretions affects the hypothalamus

22

What is diabetes insipidus?

An endocrine pathophysiology
affecting the pituitary gland, which is caused by a lack of secretion or action of vasopressin, and ADH all of which normally stimulates the distal tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb water

23

What happens to the body without ADH?

Water moving through the kidneys is not reabsorbed and is lost in the urine, resulting in severe water loss, and dehydration through diuresis

24

What are the types of diabetes insipidus?

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI)
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)

25

What causes the most common type of CDI?

The inability to synthesize and release vasopressin, which can be idiopathic or primary

26

What causes secondary central diabetes insipidus (CDI)?

• Pituitary trauma, neurosurgery, or head trauma
• Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
• Tumors including cranopharyngioma, pituitary adenoma, suprasellar meningioma, pineal gland, and metastasis
• Anorexia
• Vascular lesions such as aneeurysms

27

What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)?

A defective hormone or receptor function

28

What are the medications that can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)?

• Lithium, 20% of chronic users
• Demeclocycline, amphotericin, colchicine

29

What are the alcohol imbalances that can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)?

• Hyperkalemia
• Hypokalemia

30

What are the renal diseases that can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)?

• Sacoidosis
• Multiple myeloma
• Pyelonephritis
• SLE