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Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (262)
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1

What are the non-modifiable risk factors of cancer?

• Age
• Genetics
• Epigenetics
• Immunosuppression (relative)
• Radiation (relative)
• Sunlight (relative)

Relative meaning that it depends on the person's lifestyle behaviors

2

What are the modifiable risk factors of cancer?

• Alcohol
• Cancer-Causing Substances
• Chronic Inflammation
• Diet
• Hormones
• Immunosuppression
• Infectious Agents
• Obesity
• Radiation
• Sunlight
• Tobacco

3

A normal cell proliferates and differentiates. What does this include?

Proliferation
• Increase in cell number
• Regulated by growth factors
• Cell goes through cell cycle, which is controlled by cell cycle inhibitors, to prevent excessive growth

Differentiation
• Cells becomes “specialized” to carry out particular functions. Tissue is formed that has specific structure and function

4

What are some of the characteristics of a normal cell?

• Limited number of cell divisions
• Contact inhibition: function turning off upon contact with something
• Mutations
- Mutated DNA repaired
- Defective cell may be destroyed by immune system
• Apoptosis

5

What is cancer normally related to?

A genetic/epigenetic alteration. A disease of mutation, that is either within the structure or the function of the cell

6

What type patients typically have a structure mutation?

Childhood and early adult

7

What type patients typically have an epigenetic/function mutation?

In adults

8

True or False

Only 10% of cancer cases are genetically linked

True, Only 10% of cancer cases are genetically linked

9

What is a tumor?

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called neoplasm

10

What are the major types of tumors?

- Benign: not cancer
- In situ: contained
- Malignant: cancer
- Unknown origin

11

What is carcinogenesis?

The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells

12

What are the cellular or tumor characteristics of cancer?

• Abnormality(can also be characteristics of a benign tumor)
• Uncontrollability(can also be characteristics of a benign tumor)
• Invasiveness

13

What are the drivers of carcinogenesis?

• Proto-oncogene, a gene involved in normal cell growth. Mutations may cause it to become an oncogene, which
can cause the growth of cancer cells
• Oncogene which is a mutated proto-oncogene
• Tumor suppressor gene, a negative regulator of growth factor stimulation which controls cell growth and division. Suppression or blockage leads to the development of cancer. Normally considered an anti-oncogene, when it has no abnormalities

14

What is the proposed function of tumor suppressor gene: BRCA1, and if mutated, what does it lead to?

• Proposed function: DNA repair
• Disease if mutated: Breast cancer

15

What is the proposed function of tumor suppressor gene: p53, and if mutated, what does it lead to?

• Proposed function: Transcription/cell cycle
regulation
• Disease if mutated: Sarcoma, carcinoma, leukemia

16

What is the proposed function of tumor suppressor gene: Rb, and if mutated, what does it lead to?

• Proposed function: Nuclear transcription factor
• Disease if mutated: Retinoblastoma

17

What is the proposed function of tumor suppressor gene: MEN1, and if mutated, what does it lead to?

• Proposed function: Intrastrand DNA crosslink repair
• Disease if mutated: Parathyroid and pituitary adenomas, islet cell tumors

18

When is a person considered a cancer survivor?

At the time of diagnosis

19

True or False

Even though black women have a lower incidence rate for breast cancer than white women, black women have a 2-3x higher mortality rate(they die faster)

True, Even though black women have a lower incidence rate for breast cancer than white women, black women have a 2-3x higher mortality rate(they die faster)

20

What population is kidney cancer mostly seen?

American indians / alaska natives

21

What population is liver cancer mostly seen?

American indians/ alaska natives, asians, and pacific islanders

22

What population is prostate cancer mostly seen?

African american men

23

What population is cervical cancer mostly seen?

Women in rural areas

24

What population is multiple myeloma mostly seen?

African americans

25

What are the risk factors associated with cancer disparities?

• Genetic and biological factors
• Health care access
• Socioeconomic factors
• Chemical and physical exposures
• Diet
• Physical inactivity

26

True or False

The prevalence rate of cancer is the US is going down

FALSE, The prevalence rate of cancer is the US is going UP. This is a good thing, because mortality rates are decreasing

27

What does an incidence rate refer to?

Frequency of occurrence of new cases of disease or injury in a population over a specified period of time
• Denominator is usually:
- Summed person-years of observation
- Average population(more commonly used)

28

What does a mortality rate refer to?

Frequency of occurrence of death in a defined population during a specified interval
• Variety of measures: Subsets
and Mid-interval
• Denominator is usually avg population

29

What are the major types of cancer seen in children 0-14 years?

• Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
• Brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors
• Neuroblastoma

30

What is the average age of cancer diagnosis in children?

6