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Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (162)
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What is an infectious disease?

An illness caused by a specific infectious agent or its toxic product that results from transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or inanimate object


What are the factors that affect the immune system?

• Pregnancy
• Pre-existing conditions
• Malignancies or immunosuppressive diseases (cancer, HIV)
• Stress (emotional or surgical)
• Malnutrition (calorie insufficiency, decreased protein, iron, zinc)
• Age
• Chronic diseases
• Lymph node dissection
• Immunosuppressive treatment (corticosteroids, chemo, radiation, anti-rejection drugs)
• Indwelling lines and tubes
• Presence of implanted medical devices (total joint implants, pacemakers, pins/screws)
• Obesity


What is a virus?

Subcellular organism made up only of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) or a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) covered w/proteins.


What are the characteristics of a virus?

• Rapid replication & high mutation rates
• Most viruses are self-limiting & do not require specific antiviral therapy
• Antibiotics NOT effective on viruses
• Currently available antiviral drugs for herpes, hepatitis, influenza, HIV
• Antiviral drugs are subject to resistance


What are some examples of a virus?

• Influenza
• Herpes
• Hepatitis
• Some types of Meningitis & Pneumonia
• Common cold


What is a bacteria?

A single-celled microorganism with well defined cell walls that can grow independently on artificial media without the need for other cells.


What are the characteristics of a bacteria?

• Classified by shape and oxygen need
• Constitute about 38% of human pathogens
• Treatable by antibiotics, but occasionally need labs to determine specificity of antibiotic resistance (gram stain). There is a high emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains


What are some examples of a bacteria?

• Various strains of Streptococcus
• Staphylococcus
• Clostridium; Escherichia coli


What is a fungi?

A single-celled or multicellular organis


What are the forms that a fungi can be in?

• True pathogen (histoplasmosis & coccidioidomycosis): causes infections in healthy persons
• Opportunistic pathogen (aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis): causes infections in immunocompromised persons


Yeast is a common fungus causing ___

Yeast is a common fungus causing **thrush, diaper rash, & athlete’s foot**


What is fungi used for?

Used in the development of antibiotics, antitoxins, & other drugs


How is a fungi treated?

Antifungals or antivirals applied directly to the skin or injected in the case of serious infection


What is a parasite?

An organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host


What are the characteristics of a parasite?

More common in rural or developing areas than in developed areas


What is the mode of infection of a parasite?

Through mouth or skin


What are the common types of parasite?

• Pinworms
• Trichomoniasis
• Toxoplasmosis
• Intestinal infections giardiasis
• Cryptosporidiosis;
• Malaria transmitted by mosquito bite


What are the treatment methods for a parasite?

Antiparasitic drugs, but for some no drug is effective


What is a prion?

An infections agent composed entirely of protein material that can fold in multiple, structurally distinct ways leading to disease that is similar to viral infection


What is the mode of transmission of prions?

Usually animal to human


What are the characteristics of prions?

Characterized by a long latent interval in the host that when reactivated cause a rapidly progressive deteriorating state


What are some examples of prions?

Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease, “mad cow” disease


What are the treatment options of prions?



Where are the areas of the body that infections tend to attack?

• Generalized, systemic
• Organ systems
• Hematological
• Skin/soft tissue
• Musculotendinous
• Bone


What are the different direct contact transmission of infectious disease?

• Person to Person: touch, droplet, sexual intercourse,
• Bites from infected insects or animals capable of
transmitting disease & handling animal waste
• Mother to unborn child: through placenta or during passage through the vaginal canal in the birth process


What are the different direct contact transmission of infectious disease?

Contact w/contaminated surface or object, food, blood, or water
• Travel through the air: influenza/meningitis


What are the "Big Five" infections that have the greatest impact measured in the world?

• Pneumonia
• Diarrhea
• Tuberculosis
• Malaria


What is sepsis?

Life-threatening complication of infection occurring when the immune reaction to infection triggers inflammatory responses throughout the body


What are the characteristics of sepsis?

• Inflammation can trigger cascade of changes that damages multiple organ systems leading to failure
• Can occur in any patient, but particularly dangerous in older adults or the immunocompromised
• Early treatment improved chances for survival


What are the characteristics of the 1st stage of sepsis?

Must exhibit at least two of the following symptoms in addition to probable or confirmed infection:
• Body temp > 101 F (38.3 C) or below 96.8 F (36 C)
• HR>90 bpm
• RR>20 breaths/min