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1

What clients are rehabilitated for communication disorders?

Patients who already have language skills (typically older adults)

2

The order of structures in a neuron (peripheral nervous system):
1. dendrites
2. nucleus
3. soma
4. axon
5. myelin sheath
6. Schwann cell
7. node of Ranvier
8. ...

axon terminal

3

Cell bodies in neurons are considered _ matter

grey

4

Axons in neurons are considered _ matter

white

5

Fibre tracts a.k.a.

axons

6

Fibre tracts can range from 1 mm to _

1 m long

7

Between the axons are covered with myelin sheath, and are separated by

Nodes of Ranvier

8

_ control myelination in the peripheral n ervous system

Schwann cells

9

control myelination in the central nervous system

oligodendrocytes

10

Action potentials are _ signals

electrochemical

11

_ nerves move from the central nervous system, whereas _ nerves move to the central nervous system

Efferent/motor move from, afferent/perception move to

12

The hemispheres and lobes are a part of the

cerebrum

13

The reticular formation is involved with _

levels of alertness and consciousness

14

The reticular formation is a structure located in the

brain stem

15

The _ is involved with coordination of movement, motor learning, posture, and other aspects not completely known

cerebellum

16

According to Donald Hebb, _ that wire together, fire together

neural circuits

17

Action potentials tend to skip across axons, in a _ fashion

saltatory

18

The _ fibres connect lobes to other lobes

association

19

Neural development is mediated by

genetics

20

Newborn neurons develop mostly _ birth (location and connectivity determined _)

before birth;
determined in utero

21

Neural development continues after birth. True or false?

True

22

Considering the example of a family of multilinguists with an advanced Perisylvian fissure, this aspect of their neurology would be explained due to their _

neural development

23

According to the _ syndrome, seizures are due to the environment, whether from hot weather, fever, etc.

Dravet

24

Neural changes are due to external stimuli/sensory, according to the _ aspect of neurology

neuroplasticity

25

Neuroplasticity is involved with changes due to _, or responses

internal reorganization

26

Most neurons are developed by the _ gestational week

25th week/8 months, 1 week

27

Possible neurogenesis occurs later in the hippocampus, olfactory region, and _ during prenatal development

cerebellum

28

Neural tubes differentiate into _

various parts of the brain - cerebrum, brain stem, etc.

29

The greatest increase in surface and folding of the cerebral cortex occurs during the _ period

prenatal period

30

A _% increase in brain size occurs in the first 2 years

350

31

Glial cells, synaptic growth, myelination result in brain growth _-natally

post

32

Neurons migrate to various regioins and then _ guide axons to synapse with other neurons

growth cones

33

Glial cells are _ cells in neurology

support

34

Pruning occurs postnatally, also referred to as preprogrammed cell death or _, which involves the less efficient or redundant _ die off

apoptosis;
neural pathways

35

What is often a circumstance of clients with brain damage post-injury?

needing to be mroe deliberate in their actions, since they likely cannot rely on automated ones due to neural pathway and/or myelination damages

36

_ strategies appear helpful when dealing with a client with brain damage post-injury

Compensatory strategies
e.g., pre-empting phrases to get an answer, such as "do you want to go for a drive in the _?"

37

If asking about compensatory strategies in the environment as accounting for change, what does this suggest about changes in the brain?

there are no endogenous changes in the brain

38

In neural damage post-injury, damage can occur to both the cell body and the

axons

39

_ in damaged tissue is due to an impaired blood-brain barrier

swelling, or aedema

40

Swelling/aedema may be indicative of a

potential clot

41

Infiltration of infectionfighting cells in the brain post-injury is known as

neutrophils

42

After _, swelling starts to reduce in neural processes post-injury, which suggests why progress is often visible later on, despite poor functioning immediately after the incident

1 week

43

_ travel to the site of lesion and engulfs debris even as soon as 24 hours post-injury in the brain

microglia

44

_ form scar tissue in the brain around smaller lesions

Astrocytes

45

Axonal regeneration is better in the _ than the _, perhaps due to a growth protein present in _ but not in _

PNS more than CNS, with growth protein more present in PNS than CNS

46

Schwann cells exist in the _NS, whereas _ cells exist in the _NS

PNS
oligodendrocytes in CNS

47

The great thing about neural processes post-injury is that adjacent neuronal tissue may

take on new functions or reorganize across hemispheres

48

_ is the creation of new neurons

neurogenesis

49

Neuronal _ is the changing of neuronal structures as a part of neuroplasticity

migration

50

Dendritic _ occurs along with axon and dendritic growth, myelination and pruning in typical neuroplasticity

arborization

51

the development of new synapses in neuroplasticity is known as

synaptogenesis

52

"Neurons that fire together, wire together" is donald Hebb's description of

the development of neuronal circuits

53

Cortical fields/circuits are involved in learning and neuroplasticity by their

establishment and/or modification

54

Factors affecting plasticity and learning include:
genetics
sensory and motor experience
drugs
neurotropic factors
rewards
aging
stress
diet
magnetic/electrical stimulation
exercise and

pre-injury learning!

55

The most influential neurotropic factor that affects plasticity and learning is _, which encourages neural functioning

brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)

56

The single most replicable finding of what affects plasticity and learning: greater and improvement and change in adults is found in _

stimulating and complex environments

57

What does the most replicable finding in factors of plasticity and learning not hold for, and why?

complex and stimulating environments may not be helpful for children, especially those with ASD, because excess stimuli can cause their functioning to shut down

58

Whose finding in the factors affecting plastcity and learning suggest that [adults] improve and change best in a complex and stimulating environment?

Kolb et al., 2011

59

Prior to the 1980s, it was thought that neural architecture development was...

non-existent past early childhood

60

In childhood, it is clear that there are certain _ in neuroplasticity

sensitive periods
e.g., Kuhl and speech perception, pimprinting, etc.

61

Neuroplastic changes occurring passively during childhood is associated with _ working memory

procedural working memory

62

In adulthood, plasticity occurs...

albeit at a smaller scale

63

In adulthood, usually plasticity occurs as a result of

strong stimuli, requiring the individual to work harder to get results

64

In adults, neuroplasticity is associated with requiring _ attention, as associated with _ working memory

conscious attention
declarative working memory

65

CVAs are

cardiovascular accidents

66

TBIs are

traumatic brain injuries

67

Following brain injury, increased recruitment of regions in the DAMAGED hemisphere is associated with

improved skills (more access to those regions means greater likelihood of success in regular activities)

68

Following brain injury, reorganization may also include the complementary tissue in the _

contralateral hemisphere (as a back-up!)
e.g., hemispherectomy often show neuroplasticity in remaining hemisphere, albeit more slow

69

Considerable _ exists in the cortical changes across victims

variability!

70

Variability of cortical changes in brain injured victims is associated with:
the number of individuals who recruit only affected hemisphere compared to those who recruit the contralateral
hemisphere as well
and...

the extent of regions that are recruited

71

A great example of reorganization in the complementary tissues in the contralateral hemisphere is when Broca's area (left) is damaged [associated with rapid-fire processing], the complementary tissues in the right hemisphere associated with _ can pick up the pace, albeit with _

intonation
slower-processing
e.g., less automatic tasks can be done, such as differentiating [p] and [b], requiring more CONSCIOUS attention

72

The video we watched in class regarding kids with _ show that some improve with a total left hemispherectomy, which unfortunately shows _ in the right-side, resulting in little to no expression, but relatively high comprehension, much like a _ aphasic individual

epilepsy
paralysis in right side if hemispherectomy on the left
high comprehension but low expression is associated with Broca's aphasia, and is what would be visible in these kids following the procedure

73

It has been repeatedly found that there is not always a direct relationship between brain damage and the _

clinical/behavioural presentation

74

Two possibilities for why a direct relationship doesn't always occur with TBI and behavioural presentation:
1) cognitive reserve:
- neural reserve i.e., brain networks were active and flexible pre-injury
- neural compensation i.e., utilisation of other circuits not usually used to taking on new functions
and...

brain reserve capacity - physical attributes such as brain size, number of synpases

75

Brain networks present pre-injury refer to neural...

reserve

76

Utilisation of other circuits not usually used to taking on new functions post-injury refer to neural...

compensationi

77

What is likely for the two possibilities for why a direct relationship doesn't always occur with TBI and behavioural presentation?

they work together

78

Those with higher IQ, greater educational attainment, reading skills, occupational attainment, etc. are more likely to _

do better with a similar brain insult/injury compared to those with lower levels on these measures

79

Early intervention and _ are the most effective rehabilitation strategies, even past "critical periods"

intense training

80

Neuroplasticity still is in effect _, but usually requires conscious effort and more work, therefore requiring support for intervention

into advanced age

81

New therapies emerging for brain insult rehabilitation include: neurotropic factors (BDNF), rTMS, electrical stimulation, and

neuroprotectants

82

Some evidence suggests that intervening _ results in poorer outcomes

too early or too intensively post-injury

83

rtMS is

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

84

In the film "Discovering the human brain: New pathways to neuroscience, with Susan Bookheimer", she presents the research that takes place at

the Brain Mapping Center, UCLA

85

What process requires the use of all four lobes?

reading

86

Susan Bookheimer suggests that there are _ neurons in the adult body

100 billion neurons

87

The three types of brain-imaging techniques include:
electromagnetic, stimulation, and

haemodynamic

88

Stimulation techniques are basically

a mix of electromagnetic and haemodynamic techniques

89

EEG/ERPs and MEG are examples of _ techniques

electromagnetic

90

MRI, fMRI, PET, DTI, and NIRS are examples of _ techniques

haemodynamic

91

rTMS is an example of _ techniques

stimulation brain-imaging techniques

92

Language is often focused on using _, and how different populations' results change compared to circumstances

ERPs

93

_ measures water molecules and how they line up by noting the connectivity of axons and seeing where different pathways exist

diffusion-tensor imaging

94

_ connections, including primary auditory or visual areas can easily be shown as hyper-connected and indicative of extreme sensitivity, based on

diffusion-tensor imaging

95

_ are magnetic pulses that can show CAUSAL relationships by suppressing or adding stimulation to areas to see how an individual responds

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

96

Progression of studies in brain imaging:
information was initially found from

autopsies (Broca's area, Wernicke's area, etc.)

97


the _ of the mid 20th century captured EEGs

electron microscope

98

In the 1960s, these studies in brain imaging began:

EEG, ERP, and MEG studies

99

In the 1990s, these studies in brain imaging began:

PET

100

fMRI emerged and predominanted in brain imaging from

1997 to 2001

101

Important improvements in spatial definition of language areas occurred in

2002 to 2006

102

Greater emphasis on using imaging data to test cognitive/psycholinguistic models of language occured in

2007 to the present

103

N100 denotes a _ that is created 100 _ after an auditory or visual stimulus, as measured with a _ machine

waveform
msec
EEG

104

M100 is specific to

magnetoencephalography (MEG)

105

PET is not commonly used due to the need for

ingesting positron glucose (carcinogenic?)

106

The neuroimaging techniques best for measuring time are

EEGs and MEGs

107

The neuroimaging techniques best for measuring location are:

fMRI, PET, NIRS, and DTI

108

Electromagnetic techniques are best for _-based research, whereas haemodynamic techniques are best for _-based research

time-based/electromagnetic
location-based/haemodynamic

109

The electroencephalogram is referred to as

EEG

110

EEG measure _ from neuronal firing, i.e. direct measure of neuronal activity

voltage changes from neuronal firing

111

In EEGs, signals are _ and _ compared to a reference point

averaged and filtered

112

ERPs are known as

event-related potentials

113

ERPs are associated with

language processing

114

Several components related to language have been identified from the _ nerve and into the _ cortex

auditory nerve, and auditory cortex

115

Latencies and _ of EEG waves are informative

amplitudes

116

Latencies in EEGs are

time gone by since stimuli was presented
e.g., N100 approximtaedly 100 msec in normal people

117

If a N100 occurs in normal-hearing people, would those with hearing issues be different?

yes, certainly longer

118

Amplitudes in EEG note the

distance from peak if wave form to base

119

Amplitude refers to the strength, or _ of a waveform

robustness

120

N400 is helpfull for determining

processing vocabulary

121

P600 indicates a wave form is _ to baseline

positive, whereas N600 would be negative (not aware if N600 is an actual measure)

122

P600 is associated with

processing GRAMMAR

123

Magnetoencephalography is the _ equivalent to EEG

magnetic

124

MEG measures direct information from _ and _ neural activity

evoked and spontaneous

125

MEG offer good _ and _ resolution

temporal and spatial

126

MEG is _-/invasive

non-invasive

127

MEG is _ available, and very _

not usually avaialble; very expensive

128

MEGs are _ in volume

quiet

129

Language-related ERPs:
One that is present at birth, absent in some dyslexic individuals, and is a categorical perception is

MMN or mismatch negativity

130

Language-related ERPs:
this is associated with native language sounds

MMN (present at birth)

131

Language-related ERPs:
this ERP is found at 300 msec/N300

PMN or phonological mapping negativity

132

Language-related ERPs:
this ERP is associated with prosodic processing/phrasing, developed very early, and may help identify syntact phrase boundaries

CPS or closure positive shift

133

CPS or closure positive shift is associated with

segmentation

134

PMN or phonological mapping negativity is associated with

acknowledging different speech sounds

135

MMN or mismatch negativity is associated with

deciphering native speech sounds

136

The order of ERPs in language development are:
1. MMN
2. CPS
3. N400
4. ?

ELAN - P600

137

MMN is associated with discriminating phonemes, which typically occurs at

2 months old

138

CPS is associated with discrimination of word stress patterns and BEFORE identification of intonational boundaries, at approximately

7 months old (or just over 0.5 years old)

139

N400 is associated with lexical processing (both form and semantics), and predates sentence processing, at approximately

18 months old (or 1.5 years old)

140

ELAN-P600 is associated with sentence processing, by understanding selectional restriction of verbs, and coinciding with local phrase structure building and understanding morphosyntactic processes by age

32 to 36 months (or 3 years old)

141

_ involves intravenous radioactive markers for measuring glucose metabolism

PET/positron emission tomography

142

PETs are quiet/loud?

quiet

143

PETs are invasive?

somewhat - ingesting radioactive marker

144

PETs are expensive?

yep

145

PETs are more widely available?

not really

146

PET are better than fMRI for researching some aspects of language, especially _ and connected speech

spoken language

147

_ detects levels of oxygen in response to neural activity

fMRI - functional magnetic resonance imaging

148

What effect is measured in fMRI?

BOLD - "blood oxygen level dependent effect"

149

_ can probe areas deep in the brain

fMRI

150

fMRI is quiet/loud?

loud

151

fMRI restricts movement?

yes

152

What is very commonly used on neurolinguistic research, with new modifications improving on limitations?

fMRI

153

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
volume of machine

PET - more quiet

154

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
temporal resolution

fMRI

155

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
spatial resolution

fMRI

156

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
invasiveness

fMRI - no need for exposure to radiation

157

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
sensitivity to artifacts when subjects are speaking

fMRI

158

What is better for _: fMRI or PET?
research relating to auditory comprehension and speech production, especially past the single word level

PET

159

Structural MRI is referred to as

diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

160

_ tracks diffusion of water molecules in the brain, showing white matter tracts/fibres

diffusion tensor imaging

161

DTI tracks diffucion of water molecules in the brain, showing _ matter tracts/fibres

white

162

DTI is non-/invasive?

noninvasive

163

DTI are quiet/loud?

loud

164

DTI require movement restrictions?

yes

165

DTI provides good

spatial data

166

_ may misidentify tracts both positively and negatively

DTI!

167

_ is an INdirect measure of neuronal activity, by using reflective light measures to measure changes in oxygen levels in hemoglobin

near infrared spectography (NIRS)

168

_ is low in cost, has relatively low sensitivity to head movement, and is such is very useful for young children and babies

Near infrared spectrography (NIRS)

169

_ products, NOT detects, brain activity

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS

170

_ applies magnetic fields through the scalp, creating a "virtual" lesion, which can demonstrate causality

rTMS

171

rTMS are non-invasive?

noninvasive, enabling repetitive assessment on same subject

172

_ is the study of the cellular composition of the central nervous system's tissues under the microscope

cytoarchitecture

173

Cytoarchitecture of the cerebrum is the study of the _ composition of the _NS' tissues under a microscope:

cellular
central nervous system

174

Many different kinds of neurons are found in the cerebral cortex, including:
_ cells,
basket cells,
granular cells, and
interneurons

pyramidal

175

Different arrangements/features are shown of _ and axons in the cytoarchitecture of cerebrum

dendrites

176

The size and shape of neurons or their distribution in a given area likely has _ significance

functional

177

Much of the cytoarchitecture of cerebrum has been learned from postmortem brains (referred to as _ research), but increasingly _ is playing a role

histological
neural imaging

178

_ studied the microstructure of the cerebral cortex in 1909, developing a map of more than _ areas that are still used in imaging studies today

Brodmann
40

179

The cellular structure of specific cerebral cortex areas is known as

cytoarchitecture

180

Identifying _ is critical in cytoarchitecture as cellular structural differences result in different kinds of neuronal function

identifying borders between areas in cortical cellular structures

181

Hagoort suggests that Broca's area should be referred to as

Broca's complex

182

Historically, Brocas area = Brodmann area(s):

44 and 45

183

Brodmann areas 44 (pars opercularis) and 45 (pars triangularis) refer to

Broca's area

184

Brodmann's area 44 is associated with

dysfluent speech; articulatory problems

185

Brodmann's area 45 is associated with

language problems

186

Implications for brain imaging studies:
does Broca's area include just BA44 and 45, or also BA_ and BA_?

47 and 6

187

Implications for brain imaging studies:
Recent research with high level cytoarchitectonic information from histological studies paired with well-designed functioning imaging studies is providing what?

more complete understanding of complex underlying functions of more deeply defined regions