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1

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b.
P3a involves initial attention to novel stimulus, and a maximal amplitude over _ electrodes

frontal-central electrodes

2

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b.
P3b involves conscious recognition of infrequent stimuli from standards in _, and also reflect the cognitive workload: elicited over _ regions (including hippocampus)

memory
central-parietal

3

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b. Abnormalities in ASDs in P3a are associated with _ amplitudes. May reflect _ ability to attend to involuntary signals, according to equivocal results

absent or smaller amplitudes
reduced ability to attend to INVOLUNTARY to speech signals

4

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b. Abnormalities in ASDs in P3b are associated with _ amplitudes thought to reflect impaired updating of _ auditory information

smaller
novel/unexpected information

5

Note: individuals with ASD are resistant to _ change, which impacts learning new information/vocabulary/language structures

P300

6

Categorical perception involves the LSMG and AG or

left superior marginal gyrus and angular gyrus

7

The LSMG and the AG connect to _, and are involved in categorical perception/discrimination

Broca's area

8

LSMG and AG are involved in _/discrimination

categorical perception

9

Short lags in onset associated with voiced phonemes and longer lags associated with voiceless phonemes are suggsetive of _ _ _ in categorical perception

voice onset time

10

History of findings that children with SLI and dyslexia struggle to _ differences

hear differences in categorical perception

11

Developmentally, there are differences in adult and children perception of voice onset time (VOT), whereby adults have more defined _ with most labelling at the _ of a continuum

discrimination
ends of continuum

12

Developmentally, there are differences in adult and children perception of voice onset time (VOT), wherebychildren have more _ labelling with more _ in middle of the ontinuum (even up to age 12)

more ambiguous labelling, with more variability

13

Children with dyslexia and SSDs have _ labelling in perception of voice onset time

shallow

14

voice onset time appears to be longer for _ consonants instead of _ ones

voiced
voiceless

15

If you have a graph of voice onset time at the x-axis of a graph on categorical perception with adults at its centre (according to VOT based on voiceless consonant on left continuum, and voiced consonant on right of continuum), children would be spreading out from the centre, whereas SLI/RD would be

spread out even further

16

Nittrouer suggested a _, involved types of acoustic properties that the child attends to changes over time and development

Developmental weighting shift (Nittrouer et al., 1993)

17

According to Nittrouer's developmental weighting shift, first dynamic acoustic properties are featured with changes in the vocal tract, known as

formant transitions

18

According to Nittrouer's developmental weighting shift, after formant transitions more specific cues are used, such as spectral distributions or...

lengths of gaps or voicing

19

According to Nittrouer's developmental weighting shift, children with SLI/RD tend to rely more on _ cues, such as formant transitions (which are closely associated with articulatory gestures for speech production)

immature

20

"top down" processes are referred to as

efferent/from the CNS/predictive

21

In attempt at quantifying "top down" processes, what is contrasted between adults and children?

the ability to use them

22

In attempt at quantifying "top down" processes, what is contrasted for normal lpersons experience with that of other populations?

whether SSDs, SLI and/or ASDs have hearing loss, whether profound or central

23

Studies of speech perception across languages suggest that listeners may want to be particularly attuned to the _ _ _ of the input

specific phonetic structure of the input

24

Listening to the specific phonetic structures on the input are associated with:
learning a new vocab item in L1 or L2
child acquiring L1
particularly concerned with parity
reference to specific articulatory gestures of the word/syllable,
or..

evidence in fMRI that left frontal cortex is mroe active in more challenging speech perception tasks as above

25

Parity is associated with speech perception by referring to

determining whether one has perceived the exact phonetic production intended by the speaker

26

Liberman and colleagues discovered the _ theory of _ _

motor theory of speech perception

27

Liberman's Motor theory of speech perception started in the years of the

1950s

28

Liberman's Motor theory of speech perception involved trying to develop a "reading machine" for the

blind

29

Liberman's Motor theory of speech perceptionlearned that humans could not perceive speech sound sequences at

practically useful rates

30

Liberman's Motor theory of speech perception suggests coarticulation and _ of successive speech sounds for those with issues

overlapping

31

The _ effect is a reference to articulatory/phonetic gestures resolving perceptual challenges

McGurk Effect

32

Liberman's Motor theory of speech perception lost favour until it was touched again upon in the 1990s due to the introduction of _ _ research

mirror neurons

33

ABR =

auditory brain responses

34

ABR latency post stimulus is

2 - 20 ms

35

ABR is present

at birth

36

N100/N1/1st latency post stimulus is

approx 100 ms

37

N1 is present

soonafter birth

38

CAEPs include

P1, P2, N1, N2

39

CAEPs latency post stimulus are

100 to 200 ms

40

CAEPs are present

soon after birth, but not as much for N2

41

MMN =

Mismatched negativity

42

MMN post stimulus is

150 to 250 ms

43

MMN is present

at birth in most babies; may be absent or diminished in other children

44

Which children may MMN be absent/diminished?

those with SLI

45

PMN =

phonological mapping negativity

46

PMN post stimulus is

around 270 to 310

47

PMN is present

who knows

48

P300/P3/3rd post stimulus is at

approximately 300 ms

49

P3 is present

not sure; age may strongly affect latency and amplitude of waveform

50

CPS =

closure positive shift

51

CPS post stimulus is

300 to 400 ms

52

CPS is present

no later than 8 months in NT individuals

53

NT individuals are

neurotypical or "normal"

54

What waveform does this describe?
firing of neurons from the COCHLEA up through the BRAINSTEM

ABR

55

What waveform does this describe?
associated with early orienting to sound

ABR

56

What waveform does this describe?
many atypicalities in ASDs and SLI

ABR

57

What waveform does this describe?
for auditory stimuli, associated with loudness of signal

N100

58

What waveform does this describe?
in vision, may be associated with brightness

N100

59

What waveform does this describe?
may be associated with STRESS of speech signal and SHORT term memory trace

N100

60

What waveform does this describe?
behaves differently with SECOND language learners

N100

61

What waveform does this describe?
more prominent in adults

N100

62

What waveform does this describe?
associated with physical attributes of signal (duration, loudness, etc.)

CAEPs, specifically P1, N1, P2

63

What waveform does this describe?
integrating higher level cognitive functions (first point where "top down" processes may be at play)

N2

64

What waveform does this describe?
pre-attentive, automatic processing of auditory stimuli

MMN

65

What waveform does this describe?
measured by the ODDBALL paradigm

MMN

66

What waveform does this describe?
used in Kuhl's studies

MMN

67

What waveform does this describe?
shorter latency and higher amplitudes in ASD

MMN

68

What waveform does this describe?
associated with phonological awareness skills for reading

PMN

69

What waveform does this describe?
absent or reduced in dyslexic or poor readers

PMN

70

What waveform does this describe?
two components: associated with attention to novel stimuli OR updating of novel stimuli

P300

71

What waveform does this describe?
may be associated with babies' orienting to motherese

P300

72

What waveform does this describe?
absent or with smaller amplitures in ASD

P300

73

What waveform does this describe?
associated with detection of prosody (although some languages more than others, such as English more than French)

CPS

74

What waveform does this describe?
may help with segmentation of the signal

CPS

75

What waveform does this describe?
later, syntactic decisions

CPS

76

What waveform does this describe?
possibly associated with switching in multilingual learners

CPS

77

Trying to develop a "reading machine" for the blind, this team learned that humans could NOT perceive speech sound sequences at practically useful rates

Liberman

78

Coarticulation and overlapping of successive speech sounds was discovered by

Liberman

79

What is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound.

McGurk effect

80

A reference to articulatory/phonetic gestures resolves perceptual challenges, i.e. the motor system is involved in speech perception. This is indicative of the

motor theory of speech perception

81

These are active when performing a motor action as well as when just observing another individual performing that action

mirror neurons

82

In humans, these are located in Broca's area

mirror neuronsn

83

Fadiga et al., used _ and found activation of speech muscles during speech perception tasks

TMS

84

Pulvermuller et al., 2006, mirror neurons overlap between cortical areas during speech production and during _ _ to speech (i.e., Broca's area active during speech perception tasks)

passive listening

85

What requires:
speech perception
phonological encoding (or segmenting the acoustic signal into speech units that can be stored in memory)
phonological assembly (or formulating a motor plan that assembles the relevant speech units)
and articulation?

non word repetitions

86

What is segmenting the acoustic signal into speech units that can be stored in memory?

phonological encoding

87

What is formjulating a motor plan that assembles the relevant speech units?

phonological assembly

88

REal words and nonwords differ as no _ plan is possible in the lexicon for nonwords

articulatory

89

Coady and Evans listed reasons that repetition is better for what under certain conditions?

non words

90

Repetition is better for non-words with _ consonants

singleton

91

Repetition is better for non-words with _ word-likeness ratings

higher

92

Repetition is better for non-words with embedded _ _

real words

93

Repetition is better for non-words with _ frequency phonotactic patterns

higher

94

Are the variables in non words repetitions related?

yes!

95

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have repetition accuracy that is correlated with receptive vocabulary but not _ vocabulary

expressive

96

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have accuracy correlated with _ memory and digit memory span

phonological

97

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have accuracy related to _ of L1 (similarity to words of one's native language)

phonotactics

98

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have poorer _ repetition skills

non word

99

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have similar performance for _ or _ syllable words

1 or 2 (easier)

100

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have accuracy related to

specific variables that make non words easier to repeat

101

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI that increasing _ (phonotactics, syllable complexity and length) impacts them more

complexity

102

According to Kuhl, babies can discriminate sounds of all languages until _ months of age

8 to 9

103

Universal language sound discrimination can be prolonged in children exposed to

more than 1 language

104

Children with SLI typically have a longer universal speech sound time because they

do not discriminate sounds of their own language as quickly or proficiently

105

Children with SLI typically have a longer universal speech sound time because their brain lateralization to _ hemisphere is delayed or incomplete

left

106

For bilingual children, the left hemisphere differentiates first for L_ and then L_

L1 then L2

107

Adults can be trained to hear differences in L_

L2

108

Sometimes individuals hear the difference in sounds but cannot _ them

produce them
e.g., it's not pish, it's pish!

109

What type of individuals may hear a speech sound difference but may not be able to replicate it?

SLI children

110

L_ learners try to reproduce a form, but struggle with it

L2

111

What does this describe?
acquired aphasia and epilepsy
NT until 2 or 3, after epilepsy and regression in communication,
can progress to total central deafness
epielpy usually subscribes
language deficit remains in auditory/verbal channel
can learn language through sign and/or written language

Landau Kleffner Syndrome

112

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, typicaly development occurs until age 2 or 3 followed by onset of _ and regression in communication skills

epilepsy

113

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, their condition can progress to total _ _

central deafness

114

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ usually subsides

epilepsy

115

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, language deficit remains in the _/_ channel

auditory/verbal channel

116

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, can learn language through _ language

sign and/or written language

117

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to be born with bilateral _ or _-_ abnormalities

temporal or temporal-parietal abnormalities

118

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to have normal pure _ _

tone audiometry

119

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to have normal brain _ _ _ _

brain stem auditory evoked potentials

120

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ shows reduced glucose utilization over perisylvian areas, and sometimes subcortical structures

PET

121

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they may have some _ challenges

behavioural

122

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, deficits are specifically in _ perception but not _ knowledge
i.e., higher level language is intact and can be accessed through other modalities

difficulty with phonemic perception, but not lexical knowledge

123

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, there may be some difficulties processing _ _, e.g., past tense, plurals, as well as smaller function words such as auxiliaries

bound morphemes

124

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, causes may be due to a significant impairment in distinguishing ____

rapid changes in auditory input

125

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, the earliest stages are associated with no response to _ and _ _

speech and unspeech sounds

126

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, discrimination of _ and _ are severaly impaired

vowels and consonants

127

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, oral production is limited to _ _ (some cases showed oral dyspraxia)

meaningless sounds

128

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, in milder cases, phonemic paraphasias present but no

semantic paraphasias

129

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appeared to have _ _ skills comparable to congenitally deaf children

sign language

130

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they di not have any difficulties with

reading and writing

131

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, surgical resection of part of the _ _ has resulted in dramatic improvement or full recovery n a few cases

temporal lobe

132

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ appears to have disrupted neural development

epilepsy

133

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, atypical/inefficient neural activity is likely a result of

extra neurons or dendrites which are usually "pruned" remain

134

Technology has proved tremendously in _ _, but the signal is still very degraded

cochlear implants

135

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, he use of _ _ and/or combined _ _ and CI (for individuals with some residual low frequency perception improves performance significantly

binaural implants and/or combined aural amplication

136

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, highly variable performance in individuals with highly similar damage and properties of the CI indicate the role of the "_ _" processes are playing

top down/efferent/CNS to body

137

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, work on ____ as well as peripheral "bottom up" skills are required

higher level language processing

138

Lack of reference to intact articulatory gestures affect speech perception/phonology in children with cerebral palsy/_ _.

verbal dyspraxia

139

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with poorer _ _ /literacy skills

phonological awareness

140

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with poorer speech _ skills

perception

141

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia also are associated with

other language impairments

142

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with may have _ deficits

executive function deficits

143

What are EF deficits, and who do they potentially affect?

executive function deficits, for cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxic patients