Week 4 - Part II Flashcards

1
Q

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b.

P3a involves initial attention to novel stimulus, and a maximal amplitude over _ electrodes

A

frontal-central electrodes

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2
Q

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b.
P3b involves conscious recognition of infrequent stimuli from standards in _, and also reflect the cognitive workload: elicited over _ regions (including hippocampus)

A

memory

central-parietal

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3
Q

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b. Abnormalities in ASDs in P3a are associated with _ amplitudes. May reflect _ ability to attend to involuntary signals, according to equivocal results

A

absent or smaller amplitudes

reduced ability to attend to INVOLUNTARY to speech signals

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4
Q

P300 is composed of 2 subcomponents P3a and P3 b. Abnormalities in ASDs in P3b are associated with _ amplitudes thought to reflect impaired updating of _ auditory information

A

smaller

novel/unexpected information

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5
Q

Note: individuals with ASD are resistant to _ change, which impacts learning new information/vocabulary/language structures

A

P300

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6
Q

Categorical perception involves the LSMG and AG or

A

left superior marginal gyrus and angular gyrus

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7
Q

The LSMG and the AG connect to _, and are involved in categorical perception/discrimination

A

Broca’s area

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8
Q

LSMG and AG are involved in _/discrimination

A

categorical perception

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9
Q

Short lags in onset associated with voiced phonemes and longer lags associated with voiceless phonemes are suggsetive of _ _ _ in categorical perception

A

voice onset time

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10
Q

History of findings that children with SLI and dyslexia struggle to _ differences

A

hear differences in categorical perception

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11
Q

Developmentally, there are differences in adult and children perception of voice onset time (VOT), whereby adults have more defined _ with most labelling at the _ of a continuum

A

discrimination

ends of continuum

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12
Q

Developmentally, there are differences in adult and children perception of voice onset time (VOT), wherebychildren have more _ labelling with more _ in middle of the ontinuum (even up to age 12)

A

more ambiguous labelling, with more variability

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13
Q

Children with dyslexia and SSDs have _ labelling in perception of voice onset time

A

shallow

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14
Q

voice onset time appears to be longer for _ consonants instead of _ ones

A

voiced

voiceless

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15
Q

If you have a graph of voice onset time at the x-axis of a graph on categorical perception with adults at its centre (according to VOT based on voiceless consonant on left continuum, and voiced consonant on right of continuum), children would be spreading out from the centre, whereas SLI/RD would be

A

spread out even further

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16
Q

Nittrouer suggested a _, involved types of acoustic properties that the child attends to changes over time and development

A

Developmental weighting shift (Nittrouer et al., 1993)

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17
Q

According to Nittrouer’s developmental weighting shift, first dynamic acoustic properties are featured with changes in the vocal tract, known as

A

formant transitions

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18
Q

According to Nittrouer’s developmental weighting shift, after formant transitions more specific cues are used, such as spectral distributions or…

A

lengths of gaps or voicing

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19
Q

According to Nittrouer’s developmental weighting shift, children with SLI/RD tend to rely more on _ cues, such as formant transitions (which are closely associated with articulatory gestures for speech production)

A

immature

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20
Q

“top down” processes are referred to as

A

efferent/from the CNS/predictive

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21
Q

In attempt at quantifying “top down” processes, what is contrasted between adults and children?

A

the ability to use them

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22
Q

In attempt at quantifying “top down” processes, what is contrasted for normal lpersons experience with that of other populations?

A

whether SSDs, SLI and/or ASDs have hearing loss, whether profound or central

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23
Q

Studies of speech perception across languages suggest that listeners may want to be particularly attuned to the _ _ _ of the input

A

specific phonetic structure of the input

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24
Q

Listening to the specific phonetic structures on the input are associated with:
learning a new vocab item in L1 or L2
child acquiring L1
particularly concerned with parity
reference to specific articulatory gestures of the word/syllable,
or..

A

evidence in fMRI that left frontal cortex is mroe active in more challenging speech perception tasks as above

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25
Q

Parity is associated with speech perception by referring to

A

determining whether one has perceived the exact phonetic production intended by the speaker

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26
Q

Liberman and colleagues discovered the _ theory of _ _

A

motor theory of speech perception

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27
Q

Liberman’s Motor theory of speech perception started in the years of the

A

1950s

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28
Q

Liberman’s Motor theory of speech perception involved trying to develop a “reading machine” for the

A

blind

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29
Q

Liberman’s Motor theory of speech perceptionlearned that humans could not perceive speech sound sequences at

A

practically useful rates

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30
Q

Liberman’s Motor theory of speech perception suggests coarticulation and _ of successive speech sounds for those with issues

A

overlapping

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31
Q

The _ effect is a reference to articulatory/phonetic gestures resolving perceptual challenges

A

McGurk Effect

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32
Q

Liberman’s Motor theory of speech perception lost favour until it was touched again upon in the 1990s due to the introduction of _ _ research

A

mirror neurons

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33
Q

ABR =

A

auditory brain responses

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34
Q

ABR latency post stimulus is

A

2 - 20 ms

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35
Q

ABR is present

A

at birth

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36
Q

N100/N1/1st latency post stimulus is

A

approx 100 ms

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37
Q

N1 is present

A

soonafter birth

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38
Q

CAEPs include

A

P1, P2, N1, N2

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39
Q

CAEPs latency post stimulus are

A

100 to 200 ms

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40
Q

CAEPs are present

A

soon after birth, but not as much for N2

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41
Q

MMN =

A

Mismatched negativity

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42
Q

MMN post stimulus is

A

150 to 250 ms

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43
Q

MMN is present

A

at birth in most babies; may be absent or diminished in other children

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44
Q

Which children may MMN be absent/diminished?

A

those with SLI

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45
Q

PMN =

A

phonological mapping negativity

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46
Q

PMN post stimulus is

A

around 270 to 310

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47
Q

PMN is present

A

who knows

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48
Q

P300/P3/3rd post stimulus is at

A

approximately 300 ms

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49
Q

P3 is present

A

not sure; age may strongly affect latency and amplitude of waveform

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50
Q

CPS =

A

closure positive shift

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51
Q

CPS post stimulus is

A

300 to 400 ms

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52
Q

CPS is present

A

no later than 8 months in NT individuals

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53
Q

NT individuals are

A

neurotypical or “normal”

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54
Q

What waveform does this describe?

firing of neurons from the COCHLEA up through the BRAINSTEM

A

ABR

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55
Q

What waveform does this describe?

associated with early orienting to sound

A

ABR

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56
Q

What waveform does this describe?

many atypicalities in ASDs and SLI

A

ABR

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57
Q

What waveform does this describe?

for auditory stimuli, associated with loudness of signal

A

N100

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58
Q

What waveform does this describe?

in vision, may be associated with brightness

A

N100

59
Q

What waveform does this describe?

may be associated with STRESS of speech signal and SHORT term memory trace

A

N100

60
Q

What waveform does this describe?

behaves differently with SECOND language learners

A

N100

61
Q

What waveform does this describe?

more prominent in adults

A

N100

62
Q

What waveform does this describe?

associated with physical attributes of signal (duration, loudness, etc.)

A

CAEPs, specifically P1, N1, P2

63
Q

What waveform does this describe?

integrating higher level cognitive functions (first point where “top down” processes may be at play)

A

N2

64
Q

What waveform does this describe?

pre-attentive, automatic processing of auditory stimuli

A

MMN

65
Q

What waveform does this describe?

measured by the ODDBALL paradigm

A

MMN

66
Q

What waveform does this describe?

used in Kuhl’s studies

A

MMN

67
Q

What waveform does this describe?

shorter latency and higher amplitudes in ASD

A

MMN

68
Q

What waveform does this describe?

associated with phonological awareness skills for reading

A

PMN

69
Q

What waveform does this describe?

absent or reduced in dyslexic or poor readers

A

PMN

70
Q

What waveform does this describe?

two components: associated with attention to novel stimuli OR updating of novel stimuli

A

P300

71
Q

What waveform does this describe?

may be associated with babies’ orienting to motherese

A

P300

72
Q

What waveform does this describe?

absent or with smaller amplitures in ASD

A

P300

73
Q

What waveform does this describe?

associated with detection of prosody (although some languages more than others, such as English more than French)

A

CPS

74
Q

What waveform does this describe?

may help with segmentation of the signal

A

CPS

75
Q

What waveform does this describe?

later, syntactic decisions

A

CPS

76
Q

What waveform does this describe?

possibly associated with switching in multilingual learners

A

CPS

77
Q

Trying to develop a “reading machine” for the blind, this team learned that humans could NOT perceive speech sound sequences at practically useful rates

A

Liberman

78
Q

Coarticulation and overlapping of successive speech sounds was discovered by

A

Liberman

79
Q

What is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound.

A

McGurk effect

80
Q

A reference to articulatory/phonetic gestures resolves perceptual challenges, i.e. the motor system is involved in speech perception. This is indicative of the

A

motor theory of speech perception

81
Q

These are active when performing a motor action as well as when just observing another individual performing that action

A

mirror neurons

82
Q

In humans, these are located in Broca’s area

A

mirror neuronsn

83
Q

Fadiga et al., used _ and found activation of speech muscles during speech perception tasks

A

TMS

84
Q

Pulvermuller et al., 2006, mirror neurons overlap between cortical areas during speech production and during _ _ to speech (i.e., Broca’s area active during speech perception tasks)

A

passive listening

85
Q

What requires:
speech perception
phonological encoding (or segmenting the acoustic signal into speech units that can be stored in memory)
phonological assembly (or formulating a motor plan that assembles the relevant speech units)
and articulation?

A

non word repetitions

86
Q

What is segmenting the acoustic signal into speech units that can be stored in memory?

A

phonological encoding

87
Q

What is formjulating a motor plan that assembles the relevant speech units?

A

phonological assembly

88
Q

REal words and nonwords differ as no _ plan is possible in the lexicon for nonwords

A

articulatory

89
Q

Coady and Evans listed reasons that repetition is better for what under certain conditions?

A

non words

90
Q

Repetition is better for non-words with _ consonants

A

singleton

91
Q

Repetition is better for non-words with _ word-likeness ratings

A

higher

92
Q

Repetition is better for non-words with embedded _ _

A

real words

93
Q

Repetition is better for non-words with _ frequency phonotactic patterns

A

higher

94
Q

Are the variables in non words repetitions related?

A

yes!

95
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have repetition accuracy that is correlated with receptive vocabulary but not _ vocabulary

A

expressive

96
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have accuracy correlated with _ memory and digit memory span

A

phonological

97
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows typical children have accuracy related to _ of L1 (similarity to words of one’s native language)

A

phonotactics

98
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have poorer _ repetition skills

A

non word

99
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have similar performance for _ or _ syllable words

A

1 or 2 (easier)

100
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI have accuracy related to

A

specific variables that make non words easier to repeat

101
Q

Performance on non word tasks shows children with SLI that increasing _ (phonotactics, syllable complexity and length) impacts them more

A

complexity

102
Q

According to Kuhl, babies can discriminate sounds of all languages until _ months of age

A

8 to 9

103
Q

Universal language sound discrimination can be prolonged in children exposed to

A

more than 1 language

104
Q

Children with SLI typically have a longer universal speech sound time because they

A

do not discriminate sounds of their own language as quickly or proficiently

105
Q

Children with SLI typically have a longer universal speech sound time because their brain lateralization to _ hemisphere is delayed or incomplete

A

left

106
Q

For bilingual children, the left hemisphere differentiates first for L_ and then L_

A

L1 then L2

107
Q

Adults can be trained to hear differences in L_

A

L2

108
Q

Sometimes individuals hear the difference in sounds but cannot _ them

A

produce them

e.g., it’s not pish, it’s pish!

109
Q

What type of individuals may hear a speech sound difference but may not be able to replicate it?

A

SLI children

110
Q

L_ learners try to reproduce a form, but struggle with it

A

L2

111
Q

What does this describe?
acquired aphasia and epilepsy
NT until 2 or 3, after epilepsy and regression in communication,
can progress to total central deafness
epielpy usually subscribes
language deficit remains in auditory/verbal channel
can learn language through sign and/or written language

A

Landau Kleffner Syndrome

112
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, typicaly development occurs until age 2 or 3 followed by onset of _ and regression in communication skills

A

epilepsy

113
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, their condition can progress to total _ _

A

central deafness

114
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ usually subsides

A

epilepsy

115
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, language deficit remains in the / channel

A

auditory/verbal channel

116
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, can learn language through _ language

A

sign and/or written language

117
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to be born with bilateral _ or - abnormalities

A

temporal or temporal-parietal abnormalities

118
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to have normal pure _ _

A

tone audiometry

119
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appear to have normal brain _ _ _ _

A

brain stem auditory evoked potentials

120
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ shows reduced glucose utilization over perisylvian areas, and sometimes subcortical structures

A

PET

121
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they may have some _ challenges

A

behavioural

122
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, deficits are specifically in _ perception but not _ knowledge
i.e., higher level language is intact and can be accessed through other modalities

A

difficulty with phonemic perception, but not lexical knowledge

123
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, there may be some difficulties processing _ _, e.g., past tense, plurals, as well as smaller function words such as auxiliaries

A

bound morphemes

124
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, causes may be due to a significant impairment in distinguishing ____

A

rapid changes in auditory input

125
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, the earliest stages are associated with no response to _ and _ _

A

speech and unspeech sounds

126
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, discrimination of _ and _ are severaly impaired

A

vowels and consonants

127
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, oral production is limited to _ _ (some cases showed oral dyspraxia)

A

meaningless sounds

128
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, in milder cases, phonemic paraphasias present but no

A

semantic paraphasias

129
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they appeared to have _ _ skills comparable to congenitally deaf children

A

sign language

130
Q

In building a speech and language profile for children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, they di not have any difficulties with

A

reading and writing

131
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, surgical resection of part of the _ _ has resulted in dramatic improvement or full recovery n a few cases

A

temporal lobe

132
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, _ appears to have disrupted neural development

A

epilepsy

133
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, atypical/inefficient neural activity is likely a result of

A

extra neurons or dendrites which are usually “pruned” remain

134
Q

Technology has proved tremendously in _ _, but the signal is still very degraded

A

cochlear implants

135
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, he use of _ _ and/or combined _ _ and CI (for individuals with some residual low frequency perception improves performance significantly

A

binaural implants and/or combined aural amplication

136
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, highly variable performance in individuals with highly similar damage and properties of the CI indicate the role of the “_ _” processes are playing

A

top down/efferent/CNS to body

137
Q

For children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, work on ____ as well as peripheral “bottom up” skills are required

A

higher level language processing

138
Q

Lack of reference to intact articulatory gestures affect speech perception/phonology in children with cerebral palsy/_ _.

A

verbal dyspraxia

139
Q

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with poorer _ _ /literacy skills

A

phonological awareness

140
Q

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with poorer speech _ skills

A

perception

141
Q

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia also are associated with

A

other language impairments

142
Q

Children with cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxia are associated with may have _ deficits

A

executive function deficits

143
Q

What are EF deficits, and who do they potentially affect?

A

executive function deficits, for cerebral palsy/verbal dyspraxic patients