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1

Cognitive process involve:
attentional skills,
working memory, and

inhibition/self-control

2

Attentional skills require volition and

inhibition

3

Focused attention is associated with the _-_ process of attention, primarily in the _ lobes, and the _ _

top-down
frontal
basal ganglia

4

Stimulus-driven attention-distractibility is associated with the _-_ process of attention, primarily in the _, and _/_ lobes

bottom-up
brainstem
parietal/temporal lobes

5

Why do some autistic individuals have issues with attention?

their acute senses may be distracting

6

Effects of the _ _ are associated with poorer attention skills in this generation

modern environment
e.g., multi-tasking

7

ADHD is divided into three attention types:
predominantly inattentive,
combined, and

predominantly hyperactive-impulsive

8

Predominantly inattentive individuals with ADHD are associated with distinctly different characteristics to two other forms, damage/lack of maturation in the prefrontal cortex and parietal connections, and

childhood onset "dysexecutive syndrome"

9

ADHD individuals with predominantly hyperactive-impulsive attentionality are associated with issues in

levels of dopamine

10

Combined types of ADHD in attentionality are associated with:
abnormalities in dopamine-mediated prefrontal-striatal-cerebellar networks, and

respond to stimulant medications, but not their absence (controversial to use psychotropic drugs)

11

Previously, ADHD was typically diagnosed by parent/teacher reports, but now we use

objective methods
e.g., helmet movement and game accuracy to assess attention

12

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
selective attention,
alternating attention, divided attention and

sustained attention

13

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
selective attention,
alternating attention, sustained attention and

divided attention

14

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
divided attention,
alternating attention, sustained attention and

selective attention

15

Sustained attention is associated with vigilance and

working memory

16

Selective attention is the ability to

withstand distraction

17

Alternating attention between sources/shifting is associated with

mental flexibility

18

Divided attention is associated with

response to two or more stimuli simultaneously

19

The two attention skills associated with multi-tasking are:
alternating attention between sources/shifting and

divided attention

20

Interventions for attentional issues include: process approaches that _ address attentional components, including _-_ learning

behaviourally
computer-based

21

Interventions for attentional issues include:
_ activity/ _ stimulation, which is supposed to promote overall neural _

physical
tactile
circuitry

22

Interventions for attentional issues include:
_ studies are revealing support of the use of medications, with evidence of _ changes

neuroimaging
neuroplastic

23

Medications are shown to help attentional skills by allowing the individual to

focus on practiced skills to later improve circuitry and with the potential of not needing medication any longer

24

What type of attentional intervention is associated with a historical lack of scientific support, but is still promising

neurofeedback

25

An essential reason to improve attention is the individual's own _ to do so

motivation

26

According to Boyd (2011), auditory short term memory is

the ability to only REPEAT information, but not to actively perform cognitive action with that information (i.e. recognition)

27

According to Boyd (2011), auditory working memory is

information held for a short period of time and manipulated in some way to do a task

28

What type of auditory memory has a limited capacity (about 4 pieces of information, or the number of verbal items one can say/sign in 2 seconds):

working memory

29

According to Boyd (2011), auditory working memory is NOT related to

intellectual abilities, although WM is definitely useful!

30

Is there continuous transfer between working memory and long-term memory?

yes

31

Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
specific language impairment,
global developmental delays,
autism spectrum disorders,
traumatic brain injuries,
strokes,
dementias, and

learning disabilities

32

Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
learning disabilities
global developmental delays,
autism spectrum disorders,
traumatic brain injuries,
strokes,
dementias, and

specific language impairment,

33

Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
learning disabilities
global developmental delays,
autism spectrum disorders,
specific language impairment,
strokes,
dementias, and

traumatic brain injuries,

34

According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
articulatory
lexical
semantic
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation

intended speech

35

According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
articulatory
lexical
intended speech
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation

semantic

36

According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
semantic
lexical
intended speech
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation

articulatory

37

What is a constructed scene in verbal working memory?

"painting a scene" e.g., the box is by the washing machine

38

Individuals can recall as many items as they can verbally produce in 2 seconds, and verbal rehearsal can support holding verbal information longer in order to relay it to LTM. What process is this referring to?

the phonological loop in working memory

39

Working memory deficits are exhausting because

they require extra effort to retain information

40

How are memories lost?
decay (over a few seconds)
capacity limitations (overload)
specific interference and

loss of context (change of situation, retrieval cues are no longer present)

41

Loss of context is associated with losing memories according to age. What is an example of this?

remembering thing to do when in a different room

42

Implications of working memory deficits include:
difficulty learning a new vocab,
auditory comprehension,
difficulties developing ltm for language structures,
poor reading comprehension,
challenges in written expression,
difficulties making associations between new information and current knowledge; relating context to new information, and

at risk for missing out on critical pieces of information which hinder academic performance

43

According to Boyd (2011), cognitive processing speed is

the rate at which individuals process informational input and output

44

What is describing colours, shapes, as quickly as possible related to?

how quicky one performs overlearned tasks

45

What intervention is used to see how quickly one can perform overlearned tasks

rapid automatic naming on the CELF-4

46

Fluent, automatically process information requires _ energy/resources

less

47

Processing speed may be related to _-ation of _ _

myelination of nerve fibres

48

Children with TBI and demonstrated tears in the myelin sheath tend to have difficulties with _ _ _. Why?

cognitive processing speed
jumps along axon have to occur more often than between Nodes of RAnvier

49

Implications of slow processing speed are common in many _ disorders

developmental

50

Slow processing speed makes it difficult to

keep up in class or with work load

51

Slow processing speed may be slow with auditory or _ comprehension (struggle to access/process the information in a timely manner)

reading

52

Slow process speed may be associated with being slow to __ or in written form

respond verbally

53

Slow processing speed may be associated with a struggle to _ _, tend to be off-topic

keep up in conversations

54

Slow processing speed is: variable or constant?

variable, depending ont he task

55

Slow processing speed may co-occur with attentional problems, _, or may exist independently

working memory deficits

56

"Fast-mapping" refers to the concept that children can _

learn new vocab or structures based on a single (or just a few) exposures to the structure

57

"Fast-mapping" may explain the "_" seen in toddlers

explosion in vocabulary

58

Clinically, it is clear that some children seem to have mechanisms where vocab and structures are very quickly incorporated into _; others struggle

LtM

59

Underlying systems may be at play with _, but isi it is clear that attention working memory, focus, etc. is influential

"fast-mapping"

60

"Fast-mapping" allso appears to help with inferring the _ of related items

vocab

61

Inhibition skills are also referred to as:

self-regulation

62

Inhibition skills include:
_ factors and _ skills

linguistic factors
nonlinguistic skills

63

Linguistic factors associated with inhibition skills include:
vocab selection
selective attention to most critical linguistic information, and

topic maintenance

64

Nonlinguistic skills associated with inhibition skills include:
deferring gratification
waiting for rewards
turn-taking
reciprocal interactions/flexibility with agenda, and

focus on less-preferred activity

65

_ children are found to have better inhibition and cognitive flexibility

Bilingual

66

Children with better inhibitory control have better _ and _ outcomes

academic and linguistic outcomes

67

Neuroimaging suggests the _ _ and amygdala are involved in behavioural inhibition for adultss, but is potentially _ mediate

prefrontal cortex
developmentally mediated

68

Who developed the declarative and procedural memory system?

Michael Ullman

69

According to _, language has often been thought to depend on dedicated neurocognitive substrates

Chomsky

70

According to _, language depends on memory systems that serve non-linguistic functions that are found in both humans and other animals

Ullman

71

The two memory systems proposed by Ullman are:

declarative and procedural memory systems

72

Ullman's model of declarative memory includes:
semantic knowledge
episodic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

explicit knowledge

73

Ullman's model of declarative memory includes:
explicit knowledge
episodic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

semantic knowledge

74

Ullman's model of declarative memory includes:
semantic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

episodic knowledge

75

declarative memory is considered _-based

content

76

Declarative memory is often used more as a/n _

adult

77

Procedural memory is often used more as a/n _

child

78

According to Ullman's model, procedural memory includes:
specializing for learning rules and sequences
needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or "rules"
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

implicit knowledge

79

According to Ullman's model, procedural memory includes:
implicit knowledge
needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or "rules"
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

specializing for learning rules and sequences

80

According to Ullman's model, procedural memory includes:
implicit knowledge
specializing for learning rules and sequences
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or "rules"

81

When discussing learning a new language, procedural memory systems would argue that it is easier to learn the language's _, whereas declarative memory systems would be easier to learn the language's _

native accent (procedural - child up to 3 or 4)
syntax (declarative memory - adult)

82

What is the base for the declarative memory and procedural memory systems?

biological

83

Declarative memory involves _ _ lobe structures, and the hippocampus

medial temporal

84

Declarative memory involvesover time, memories become _ dependent on structures (i.e. one tends to _)

LESS dependent
generalize

85

Declarative memory involvesBA 45 and 45 and parts of the _ _ which provide access to these regions

basal ganglia

86

Declarative memory involves the neurotransmitters:
acetylcholine, _ gene, and estrogen

brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

87

Procedural memory involves _/basal ganglia circuits, including _ regions BA 44 and _ _ in basal ganglia

frontal
premotor regions
caudate nucleus

88

BA 44 in the premotor regions are involved in procedural memory process as a part of

Brodmann's area

89

Procedural memory MAY involve _ _ as a part of its system

mirror neurons

90

_ seems to play an important role in procedural memory

dopamine

91

T or F: declarative memory and procedural memory systems interact and complement each other in learning the same or analogous knowledge

true!

92

The procedural memory system is associated with _ area, as it deals mroe with isssues of expression and isues with grammar, as is mroe typical for children (_-_ area of the brain)

Broca's area
non-fluent area

93

The declarative memory system is associated with _ area, as it deals mroe with issues of vocabulary including neologisms, as well as issues with semantic language, more likely to occur in adults (part of the _ area of the brain)

Wernicke's
fluent area

94

Language and the declarative and procedural memory systems vary in the types of learning, with declarative memory associated with _ learning, and procedural memory associated with _ learning

declarative - conscious
procedural - implicit

95

Declarative memory is helpful when creating irregular forms, formulaic language, and

semantics, vocab

96

Procedural memory is helpful when learning regular forms for tense, plurals, retrieval of lexical items, especially grammatic function words, and

formulation of novel utterances/word order

97

The declarative and procedural memory systems work together and will compensate for each in the case of _

loss of function

98

A deficit in declarative memory is associated with Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, and

fluent aphasias

99

A deficit in procedural memory is associated with specific language issues, ASD, non-fluent aphasias and

Parkinson's disease