Week 2 Flashcards

1
Q

Cognitive process involve:
attentional skills,
working memory, and

A

inhibition/self-control

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2
Q

Attentional skills require volition and

A

inhibition

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3
Q

Focused attention is associated with the - process of attention, primarily in the _ lobes, and the _ _

A

top-down
frontal
basal ganglia

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4
Q

Stimulus-driven attention-distractibility is associated with the - process of attention, primarily in the _, and / lobes

A

bottom-up
brainstem
parietal/temporal lobes

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5
Q

Why do some autistic individuals have issues with attention?

A

their acute senses may be distracting

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6
Q

Effects of the _ _ are associated with poorer attention skills in this generation

A

modern environment

e.g., multi-tasking

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7
Q

ADHD is divided into three attention types:
predominantly inattentive,
combined, and

A

predominantly hyperactive-impulsive

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8
Q

Predominantly inattentive individuals with ADHD are associated with distinctly different characteristics to two other forms, damage/lack of maturation in the prefrontal cortex and parietal connections, and

A

childhood onset “dysexecutive syndrome”

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9
Q

ADHD individuals with predominantly hyperactive-impulsive attentionality are associated with issues in

A

levels of dopamine

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10
Q

Combined types of ADHD in attentionality are associated with:
abnormalities in dopamine-mediated prefrontal-striatal-cerebellar networks, and

A

respond to stimulant medications, but not their absence (controversial to use psychotropic drugs)

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11
Q

Previously, ADHD was typically diagnosed by parent/teacher reports, but now we use

A

objective methods

e.g., helmet movement and game accuracy to assess attention

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12
Q

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
selective attention,
alternating attention, divided attention and

A

sustained attention

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13
Q

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
selective attention,
alternating attention, sustained attention and

A

divided attention

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14
Q

according to Sohlberg and Mateer (1987), components of attentional skills include:
basic arousal,
divided attention,
alternating attention, sustained attention and

A

selective attention

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15
Q

Sustained attention is associated with vigilance and

A

working memory

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16
Q

Selective attention is the ability to

A

withstand distraction

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17
Q

Alternating attention between sources/shifting is associated with

A

mental flexibility

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18
Q

Divided attention is associated with

A

response to two or more stimuli simultaneously

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19
Q

The two attention skills associated with multi-tasking are:

alternating attention between sources/shifting and

A

divided attention

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20
Q

Interventions for attentional issues include: process approaches that _ address attentional components, including - learning

A

behaviourally

computer-based

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21
Q

Interventions for attentional issues include:

_ activity/ _ stimulation, which is supposed to promote overall neural _

A

physical
tactile
circuitry

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22
Q

Interventions for attentional issues include:

_ studies are revealing support of the use of medications, with evidence of _ changes

A

neuroimaging

neuroplastic

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23
Q

Medications are shown to help attentional skills by allowing the individual to

A

focus on practiced skills to later improve circuitry and with the potential of not needing medication any longer

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24
Q

What type of attentional intervention is associated with a historical lack of scientific support, but is still promising

A

neurofeedback

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25
Q

An essential reason to improve attention is the individual’s own _ to do so

A

motivation

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26
Q

According to Boyd (2011), auditory short term memory is

A

the ability to only REPEAT information, but not to actively perform cognitive action with that information (i.e. recognition)

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27
Q

According to Boyd (2011), auditory working memory is

A

information held for a short period of time and manipulated in some way to do a task

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28
Q

What type of auditory memory has a limited capacity (about 4 pieces of information, or the number of verbal items one can say/sign in 2 seconds):

A

working memory

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29
Q

According to Boyd (2011), auditory working memory is NOT related to

A

intellectual abilities, although WM is definitely useful!

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30
Q

Is there continuous transfer between working memory and long-term memory?

A

yes

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31
Q
Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
specific language impairment, 
global developmental delays, 
autism spectrum disorders, 
traumatic brain injuries,
strokes,
dementias, and
A

learning disabilities

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32
Q
Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
learning disabilities
global developmental delays, 
autism spectrum disorders, 
traumatic brain injuries,
strokes,
dementias, and
A

specific language impairment,

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33
Q
Comorbidity of poor working memory is associated with:
learning disabilities
global developmental delays, 
autism spectrum disorders, 
specific language impairment,
strokes,
dementias, and
A

traumatic brain injuries,

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34
Q
According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
articulatory
lexical
semantic
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation
A

intended speech

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35
Q
According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
articulatory
lexical
intended speech
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation
A

semantic

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36
Q
According to Cowan, the types of verbal working memory are:
sensory
phonological
semantic
lexical
intended speech
syntactic
constructed scene
priming activation
A

articulatory

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37
Q

What is a constructed scene in verbal working memory?

A

“painting a scene” e.g., the box is by the washing machine

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38
Q

Individuals can recall as many items as they can verbally produce in 2 seconds, and verbal rehearsal can support holding verbal information longer in order to relay it to LTM. What process is this referring to?

A

the phonological loop in working memory

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39
Q

Working memory deficits are exhausting because

A

they require extra effort to retain information

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40
Q

How are memories lost?
decay (over a few seconds)
capacity limitations (overload)
specific interference and

A

loss of context (change of situation, retrieval cues are no longer present)

41
Q

Loss of context is associated with losing memories according to age. What is an example of this?

A

remembering thing to do when in a different room

42
Q

Implications of working memory deficits include:
difficulty learning a new vocab,
auditory comprehension,
difficulties developing ltm for language structures,
poor reading comprehension,
challenges in written expression,
difficulties making associations between new information and current knowledge; relating context to new information, and

A

at risk for missing out on critical pieces of information which hinder academic performance

43
Q

According to Boyd (2011), cognitive processing speed is

A

the rate at which individuals process informational input and output

44
Q

What is describing colours, shapes, as quickly as possible related to?

A

how quicky one performs overlearned tasks

45
Q

What intervention is used to see how quickly one can perform overlearned tasks

A

rapid automatic naming on the CELF-4

46
Q

Fluent, automatically process information requires _ energy/resources

A

less

47
Q

Processing speed may be related to _-ation of _ _

A

myelination of nerve fibres

48
Q

Children with TBI and demonstrated tears in the myelin sheath tend to have difficulties with _ _ _. Why?

A

cognitive processing speed

jumps along axon have to occur more often than between Nodes of RAnvier

49
Q

Implications of slow processing speed are common in many _ disorders

A

developmental

50
Q

Slow processing speed makes it difficult to

A

keep up in class or with work load

51
Q

Slow processing speed may be slow with auditory or _ comprehension (struggle to access/process the information in a timely manner)

A

reading

52
Q

Slow process speed may be associated with being slow to __ or in written form

A

respond verbally

53
Q

Slow processing speed may be associated with a struggle to _ _, tend to be off-topic

A

keep up in conversations

54
Q

Slow processing speed is: variable or constant?

A

variable, depending ont he task

55
Q

Slow processing speed may co-occur with attentional problems, _, or may exist independently

A

working memory deficits

56
Q

“Fast-mapping” refers to the concept that children can _

A

learn new vocab or structures based on a single (or just a few) exposures to the structure

57
Q

“Fast-mapping” may explain the “_” seen in toddlers

A

explosion in vocabulary

58
Q

Clinically, it is clear that some children seem to have mechanisms where vocab and structures are very quickly incorporated into _; others struggle

A

LtM

59
Q

Underlying systems may be at play with _, but isi it is clear that attention working memory, focus, etc. is influential

A

“fast-mapping”

60
Q

“Fast-mapping” allso appears to help with inferring the _ of related items

A

vocab

61
Q

Inhibition skills are also referred to as:

A

self-regulation

62
Q

Inhibition skills include:

_ factors and _ skills

A

linguistic factors

nonlinguistic skills

63
Q

Linguistic factors associated with inhibition skills include:
vocab selection
selective attention to most critical linguistic information, and

A

topic maintenance

64
Q

Nonlinguistic skills associated with inhibition skills include:
deferring gratification
waiting for rewards
turn-taking
reciprocal interactions/flexibility with agenda, and

A

focus on less-preferred activity

65
Q

_ children are found to have better inhibition and cognitive flexibility

A

Bilingual

66
Q

Children with better inhibitory control have better _ and _ outcomes

A

academic and linguistic outcomes

67
Q

Neuroimaging suggests the _ _ and amygdala are involved in behavioural inhibition for adultss, but is potentially _ mediate

A

prefrontal cortex

developmentally mediated

68
Q

Who developed the declarative and procedural memory system?

A

Michael Ullman

69
Q

According to _, language has often been thought to depend on dedicated neurocognitive substrates

A

Chomsky

70
Q

According to _, language depends on memory systems that serve non-linguistic functions that are found in both humans and other animals

A

Ullman

71
Q

The two memory systems proposed by Ullman are:

A

declarative and procedural memory systems

72
Q

Ullman’s model of declarative memory includes:
semantic knowledge
episodic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

A

explicit knowledge

73
Q

Ullman’s model of declarative memory includes:
explicit knowledge
episodic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

A

semantic knowledge

74
Q

Ullman’s model of declarative memory includes:
semantic knowledge
learning quickly with little need for repeated exposure and

A

episodic knowledge

75
Q

declarative memory is considered _-based

A

content

76
Q

Declarative memory is often used more as a/n _

A

adult

77
Q

Procedural memory is often used more as a/n _

A

child

78
Q

According to Ullman’s model, procedural memory includes:
specializing for learning rules and sequences
needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or “rules”
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

A

implicit knowledge

79
Q

According to Ullman’s model, procedural memory includes:
implicit knowledge
needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or “rules”
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

A

specializing for learning rules and sequences

80
Q

According to Ullman’s model, procedural memory includes:
implicit knowledge
specializing for learning rules and sequences
learning and memories not available to conscious memory (e.g., 2 year-olds and use of /s/ in third person forms) and

A

needing repeated exposure to learn patterns or “rules”

81
Q

When discussing learning a new language, procedural memory systems would argue that it is easier to learn the language’s _, whereas declarative memory systems would be easier to learn the language’s _

A
native accent (procedural - child up to 3 or 4)
syntax (declarative memory - adult)
82
Q

What is the base for the declarative memory and procedural memory systems?

A

biological

83
Q

Declarative memory involves _ _ lobe structures, and the hippocampus

A

medial temporal

84
Q

Declarative memory involvesover time, memories become _ dependent on structures (i.e. one tends to _)

A

LESS dependent

generalize

85
Q

Declarative memory involvesBA 45 and 45 and parts of the _ _ which provide access to these regions

A

basal ganglia

86
Q

Declarative memory involves the neurotransmitters:

acetylcholine, _ gene, and estrogen

A

brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

87
Q

Procedural memory involves _/basal ganglia circuits, including _ regions BA 44 and _ _ in basal ganglia

A

frontal
premotor regions
caudate nucleus

88
Q

BA 44 in the premotor regions are involved in procedural memory process as a part of

A

Brodmann’s area

89
Q

Procedural memory MAY involve _ _ as a part of its system

A

mirror neurons

90
Q

_ seems to play an important role in procedural memory

A

dopamine

91
Q

T or F: declarative memory and procedural memory systems interact and complement each other in learning the same or analogous knowledge

A

true!

92
Q

The procedural memory system is associated with _ area, as it deals mroe with isssues of expression and isues with grammar, as is mroe typical for children (- area of the brain)

A

Broca’s area

non-fluent area

93
Q

The declarative memory system is associated with _ area, as it deals mroe with issues of vocabulary including neologisms, as well as issues with semantic language, more likely to occur in adults (part of the _ area of the brain)

A

Wernicke’s

fluent area

94
Q

Language and the declarative and procedural memory systems vary in the types of learning, with declarative memory associated with _ learning, and procedural memory associated with _ learning

A

declarative - conscious

procedural - implicit

95
Q

Declarative memory is helpful when creating irregular forms, formulaic language, and

A

semantics, vocab

96
Q

Procedural memory is helpful when learning regular forms for tense, plurals, retrieval of lexical items, especially grammatic function words, and

A

formulation of novel utterances/word order

97
Q

The declarative and procedural memory systems work together and will compensate for each in the case of _

A

loss of function

98
Q

A deficit in declarative memory is associated with Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, and

A

fluent aphasias

99
Q

A deficit in procedural memory is associated with specific language issues, ASD, non-fluent aphasias and

A

Parkinson’s disease