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1

What disorder is associated with language-processing/sound meaning issues?

phonological disorders

2

What are missing information sources for understasnding communication disabilities?
psycholinguistic
neuroimaging
slp/brain damaged individuals
neurochemistry
genetics
animal models

computational neuroscience

3

What does modularity have to do with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?

defining whether the patient deals with particular types of word (e.g., function or content, abstract or concrete words)

4

What type of model is connectionism, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?

computer models

5

Liberman established a theory in 1967 that looked at referencing articulatory gestures, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language. What is it?

motor theory of language perception

6

Theory of mind, the idea of imitation, as well as understanding empathy is associated with what psycholinguistic model of speech and language?

mirror neurons

7

Ullman established in 2001 a model of memory as associated with what psycholinguistic model of speech and language?

declarative-procedural model of memory

8

Baddeley et al., and Cowan created models that looked at memory as a psycholinguistic model of speech and language. What were they?

working memory models

9

What are Theory of Mind, Central Coherence Theory, and Executive function Theory associated with?

Autism-spectrum

10

What is associated with Central Coherence Theory?

an inability to "see through the trees" since one is lost in details

11

What group of children tend to have more issues with Theory of Mind and why?

deaf children of hearing parents that are not fluent in sign language; they haven't an ability to communicate or be communicated with fully

12

What theory is associated with problems with memory in the psycholinguistic models of speech and language?

Executive Function Theory

13

What type of imaging techniques are used for communication disorders?
electromagnetic techniques
haemodynamic techniques and

stimulation techniques

14

What are examples of temporal imaging techniques?

EEG/ERPs or MEG
(electromagnetic techniques)
x

15

What type of model is connectionism, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?

MEG

16

What are examples of Haemodynamic techniques?
fMRI
PET
DTI

SPECT
NIRS

17

What are spatial techniques?

Haemodynamic imaging techniques

18

What are stimulation techniques?

those that create and suppress in imaging

19

What are considerd passive imaging techniques?

both electromagnetic and haemodynamic techniques

20

What is the main stimulation imaging technique?

rTMS

21

What is the main role of neruoimaging?

validate and inform psycholinguistic models

22

What do we need to do even when neuroimaging validates and informs our psycholinguistic models?

we need to continue to seek to understand language itself, and how it works

23

What challenges our hypotheses and psycholinguistic theories?

neuroimaging

24

What does neuroimaging reveal that may not have been apparent before?

relationships

25

What does neuroimaging promote, and what does it help to do further?

promotes understanding of psycholinguistic models, and how to develop them further

26

What does neuroimaging have to do with assessment and intervention procedures?

it informs and validates assessment and intervention procedures

27

Neuroimaging encourages a win-win situation but...

one needs to keep aware of the limitations of all approaches to the study of communication disabilities

28

What is the main approach t hat I have coined the "hope this works" appraoch?

hypothesis testing approach

29

What is the hypothesis testing approach a.k.a.?

the cognitive neuropsychological approach

30

What does the hypothesis testing approach use to conclude which processing functions are intact, and which are not?

errors that the client makes

31

What must be collected for the hypothesis testing approach, and why is it done?

data must be collected under different conditions to fully understand the underlying deficit in the system

32

What must data be compared to in the hypothesis testing approach?

data must be compred to performance of neurotypical individuals

33

What is NT?

neurotypical individuals ("normal"

34

Why is the hypothesis testing approach helpful in interventions?

it lends itself well to ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention

35

What is the major starting point when analyzing speech in the hypothesis testing approach?

auditory analysis

36

What is the major starting point when assessing pictures, seen objects or print in the hypothesis testing approach?

visual feature analysis

37

"George" had difficulties with recalling specific words, but they didn't have phonetic/phonemic errors. What kind of paraphasia does this describe?

semantic

38

If "George" had difficulties with recalling specific words but had phonetic/phonemic errors, what kind of paraphasia does this describe?

phonemic paraphasia

39

When assessing George's semantic paraphasia, what method assesses circumlocutions, definitions, and semantic field errors?

picture naming

40

What type of paraphasia is associated with testing nearly 100% in receptive single word vocab?

semantic paraphasia

41

What type of testing nearly 100% in higher level semantics is associated with semantic paraphasia?

presenting 2 pictures, and deciding if they are synonymous

42

What type of impairment is typical with semantic paraphasia?

selection/retrieval of word from phonological output lexicon

43

How is George's semantic paraphasia best treated?

strengthening word retrieval through combining meaning AND phonology

44

Hyperlexia is associated with a difficulty of _ but an understanding of _

semantics
phonemes/phonetics

45

Broca's aphasia is associated with
left cerebral hemorrhage, retaining personality, reduced expressive language and

good repetition (no damage to arcuate fasciculus)

46

A laryngectomy is associated with retained _ language, but reduced _ language

comprehensive
reduced expressive

47

Who suggested phrenology was a science?

Franz Josef Gal

48

What area is associated with a cyst in the lower left frontal lobe?

Sylvian fissure

49

What was originally seen as the site of articulate language production, and then later associated with comprehension?

Broca's area

50

Can deaf women who use sign language lose expressive language when experiencing a stroke in the left part of the brain (Wernicke's area)?

absolutely

51

What type of patient is associated with incontinent fluency, yet are typically incomprehensible and do not easily understand or even repeat what is said to them

Wernicke's aphasia

52

What is associated with damage to the arcuate fasciculus and issues repeating words, according to John Hewlings Jackson?

conduction aphasia

53

Neurons conduct

electrical signals

54

_ carries messages to other cells

axons

55

Short spines that increase surface area of a neuron to receive signals from other neurons are called

dendrites

56

Activation of the _ generates an action potential, carrying neural messages down the axon, with end branches called _

axon hillock
terminals

57

The end of axon terminals are found_

synapses

58

_ are released from the presynaptic neuron to the receptor at the postsynaptic neuron

neurotransmitters

59

Neurotransmitters activate the _ process to continue messaging along neurons

electrochemical

60

The central nervous system includes the brain and

spinal cord

61

the brain is composed of the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum, and

diencephalon

62

The cerebral hemisphered are covered with _ matter, underneath of which is found a deeper layer of neural tracts, known as _ matter

gray
white

63

The _ lobe is associated with thinking, motion, speech, planning of motions

frontal

64

The _ lobe is associated with input of the eyes

occipital

65

The _ lobe is associated with hearing, feeling emotions, perceiving form and colour, understanding speech, and smell

temporal

66

The _ lobe is involved with the senses of the skin, pain, touch, position of arms and legs in space, auditory and visual senses (partly) too

parietal

67

The diencephalon is composed of the

hypothalamus and thalamus

68

The thalamus is involved with

input of sense organs, moving to cerebral cortex

69

The hypothalamus is associated with hormonal regulation and

the autonomic nervous system

70

The _ involved control of breathing, circulation, perception of pain, heat regulation, and organization of simple movements

brainstem

71

Damage to the _ can be fatal

brainstem

72

The _ is associated with coordination of movements, posture, learning motor skills

cerebellum

73

The medulla is asociated with transitions from an opening from the base of the skull downwards to the spinal cord, as a part of the

brainstem

74

The _ nervous system involves motor nerves, whereas the _ nervous system is associated with regulating internal organs and glands

somatic
autonomic

75

The _ moves relays info from the muscles and internal organs, both senses and movements

spinal cord

76

Transduction is stimuli translated iinto...

electrical signals up through the nervous system, arriving via different nerve fibres stimulating different brain centres

77

Perception is the process that the cerebral cortex does to combine, analyze, and interpret

sensations

78

_ is the dominant sense, with 70% of sensory receptors and 1/2 of the cerebral cortex involved with it

vision

79

Light receptor cells are divided into _ and _

rods and cones

80

The _ are stimulated by light that is red, green, and/orb blue

cones

81

action potentials from the cones are transmitted from the optic nerve to the _, where they are relayed to areas of the brain

thalamus

82

_ is produced by analyzing vibrating sound wavest through the air that move outward from its object, and reaching the pinna

hearing

83

The outer ear meets the middle at the

tympanic membrane

84

The tympanic membrance reaches the pistons of the middle ear that transmit vibrations to the oval window, known as the

ossicles

85

The inner ear begins at the _, within which are found the organ of corti, the receptor of hearing located within at its cilia, and vibrations create action potentials to the auditory nerve leading to the brain - primary auditory cortex, secondary, and higher-order auditory cortex

cochlea

86

Gustation is the sense of taste, of that is relayed from the _ which has the taste buds that are activated by water soluble things in the saliva

lingual papillae

87

There are _ senses of taste

5

88

The _ create a greater surface area in the nose in order to afor the olfactor receptors to identify smells

olfactory epithelium

89

Olfactory cilia are activated by by one inhaling smells which are absorbed by

being covered in mucus, attracting the scent particles

90

The _ cells create _ reahing each one sense cell

mitral cells,
glomeruli (one glomerulus)

91

Smell is assessed in the temporal lobe as well as the

limbic system

92

Mechanoreceptors are associatedw with touch, pressure, stretch, tension and vibration, and are found at the

joints and muscles

93

The inner ear is associated with hearing and

balance and coordination

94

Chemoreceptors are associated with smell and

changes in concentration of dissolved substances in the blood

95

thermoreceptors are associated with temperature changes and

regulating surface and core temperatures

96

Receptors associated with pain are called

nociceptors

97

Movement in arms, legs, hands, feet, trunk are activated depending on the fineness of motor nmovements in the

motor neurons

98

the _ nuclei provide similar function to motor neurons, but associataed with the head, nec,k, face and eyes

cranial nerve motor nuclei

99

The ARAS is found in the

brainstem

100

The ARAS causes activation/arousal of the _ when awake, but inhibition does so to the thalamus

cerebral cortex

101

activation of the anterior hypothalamus causes _, whereas activation of the posterior hypothalamus causes _

sleepiness
wakefulness

102

The ARAS is the

ascending reticular activating system that helps one stay awake or go to sleep