Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (102)
What disorder is associated with language-processing/sound meaning issues?
What are missing information sources for understasnding communication disabilities?
slp/brain damaged individuals
What does modularity have to do with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?
defining whether the patient deals with particular types of word (e.g., function or content, abstract or concrete words)
What type of model is connectionism, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?
Liberman established a theory in 1967 that looked at referencing articulatory gestures, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language. What is it?
motor theory of language perception
Theory of mind, the idea of imitation, as well as understanding empathy is associated with what psycholinguistic model of speech and language?
Ullman established in 2001 a model of memory as associated with what psycholinguistic model of speech and language?
declarative-procedural model of memory
Baddeley et al., and Cowan created models that looked at memory as a psycholinguistic model of speech and language. What were they?
working memory models
What are Theory of Mind, Central Coherence Theory, and Executive function Theory associated with?
What is associated with Central Coherence Theory?
an inability to "see through the trees" since one is lost in details
What group of children tend to have more issues with Theory of Mind and why?
deaf children of hearing parents that are not fluent in sign language; they haven't an ability to communicate or be communicated with fully
What theory is associated with problems with memory in the psycholinguistic models of speech and language?
Executive Function Theory
What type of imaging techniques are used for communication disorders?
haemodynamic techniques and
What are examples of temporal imaging techniques?
EEG/ERPs or MEG
What type of model is connectionism, as associated with psycholinguistic models of speech and language?
What are examples of Haemodynamic techniques?
What are spatial techniques?
Haemodynamic imaging techniques
What are stimulation techniques?
those that create and suppress in imaging
What are considerd passive imaging techniques?
both electromagnetic and haemodynamic techniques
What is the main stimulation imaging technique?
What is the main role of neruoimaging?
validate and inform psycholinguistic models
What do we need to do even when neuroimaging validates and informs our psycholinguistic models?
we need to continue to seek to understand language itself, and how it works
What challenges our hypotheses and psycholinguistic theories?
What does neuroimaging reveal that may not have been apparent before?
What does neuroimaging promote, and what does it help to do further?
promotes understanding of psycholinguistic models, and how to develop them further
What does neuroimaging have to do with assessment and intervention procedures?
it informs and validates assessment and intervention procedures
Neuroimaging encourages a win-win situation but...
one needs to keep aware of the limitations of all approaches to the study of communication disabilities
What is the main approach t hat I have coined the "hope this works" appraoch?
hypothesis testing approach
What is the hypothesis testing approach a.k.a.?
the cognitive neuropsychological approach
What does the hypothesis testing approach use to conclude which processing functions are intact, and which are not?
errors that the client makes
What must be collected for the hypothesis testing approach, and why is it done?
data must be collected under different conditions to fully understand the underlying deficit in the system
What must data be compared to in the hypothesis testing approach?
data must be compred to performance of neurotypical individuals
What is NT?
neurotypical individuals ("normal"
Why is the hypothesis testing approach helpful in interventions?
it lends itself well to ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention
What is the major starting point when analyzing speech in the hypothesis testing approach?
What is the major starting point when assessing pictures, seen objects or print in the hypothesis testing approach?
visual feature analysis
"George" had difficulties with recalling specific words, but they didn't have phonetic/phonemic errors. What kind of paraphasia does this describe?
If "George" had difficulties with recalling specific words but had phonetic/phonemic errors, what kind of paraphasia does this describe?
When assessing George's semantic paraphasia, what method assesses circumlocutions, definitions, and semantic field errors?
What type of paraphasia is associated with testing nearly 100% in receptive single word vocab?
What type of testing nearly 100% in higher level semantics is associated with semantic paraphasia?
presenting 2 pictures, and deciding if they are synonymous
What type of impairment is typical with semantic paraphasia?
selection/retrieval of word from phonological output lexicon
How is George's semantic paraphasia best treated?
strengthening word retrieval through combining meaning AND phonology
Hyperlexia is associated with a difficulty of _ but an understanding of _
Broca's aphasia is associated with
left cerebral hemorrhage, retaining personality, reduced expressive language and
good repetition (no damage to arcuate fasciculus)
A laryngectomy is associated with retained _ language, but reduced _ language
Who suggested phrenology was a science?
Franz Josef Gal
What area is associated with a cyst in the lower left frontal lobe?
What was originally seen as the site of articulate language production, and then later associated with comprehension?
Can deaf women who use sign language lose expressive language when experiencing a stroke in the left part of the brain (Wernicke's area)?
What type of patient is associated with incontinent fluency, yet are typically incomprehensible and do not easily understand or even repeat what is said to them
What is associated with damage to the arcuate fasciculus and issues repeating words, according to John Hewlings Jackson?
_ carries messages to other cells
Short spines that increase surface area of a neuron to receive signals from other neurons are called
Activation of the _ generates an action potential, carrying neural messages down the axon, with end branches called _
The end of axon terminals are found_
_ are released from the presynaptic neuron to the receptor at the postsynaptic neuron
Neurotransmitters activate the _ process to continue messaging along neurons
The central nervous system includes the brain and
the brain is composed of the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum, and
The cerebral hemisphered are covered with _ matter, underneath of which is found a deeper layer of neural tracts, known as _ matter
The _ lobe is associated with thinking, motion, speech, planning of motions
The _ lobe is associated with input of the eyes
The _ lobe is associated with hearing, feeling emotions, perceiving form and colour, understanding speech, and smell
The _ lobe is involved with the senses of the skin, pain, touch, position of arms and legs in space, auditory and visual senses (partly) too
The diencephalon is composed of the
hypothalamus and thalamus
The thalamus is involved with
input of sense organs, moving to cerebral cortex
The hypothalamus is associated with hormonal regulation and
the autonomic nervous system
The _ involved control of breathing, circulation, perception of pain, heat regulation, and organization of simple movements
Damage to the _ can be fatal
The _ is associated with coordination of movements, posture, learning motor skills
The medulla is asociated with transitions from an opening from the base of the skull downwards to the spinal cord, as a part of the
The _ nervous system involves motor nerves, whereas the _ nervous system is associated with regulating internal organs and glands
The _ moves relays info from the muscles and internal organs, both senses and movements
Transduction is stimuli translated iinto...
electrical signals up through the nervous system, arriving via different nerve fibres stimulating different brain centres
Perception is the process that the cerebral cortex does to combine, analyze, and interpret
_ is the dominant sense, with 70% of sensory receptors and 1/2 of the cerebral cortex involved with it
Light receptor cells are divided into _ and _
rods and cones
The _ are stimulated by light that is red, green, and/orb blue
action potentials from the cones are transmitted from the optic nerve to the _, where they are relayed to areas of the brain
_ is produced by analyzing vibrating sound wavest through the air that move outward from its object, and reaching the pinna
The outer ear meets the middle at the
The tympanic membrance reaches the pistons of the middle ear that transmit vibrations to the oval window, known as the
The inner ear begins at the _, within which are found the organ of corti, the receptor of hearing located within at its cilia, and vibrations create action potentials to the auditory nerve leading to the brain - primary auditory cortex, secondary, and higher-order auditory cortex
Gustation is the sense of taste, of that is relayed from the _ which has the taste buds that are activated by water soluble things in the saliva
There are _ senses of taste
The _ create a greater surface area in the nose in order to afor the olfactor receptors to identify smells
Olfactory cilia are activated by by one inhaling smells which are absorbed by
being covered in mucus, attracting the scent particles
The _ cells create _ reahing each one sense cell
glomeruli (one glomerulus)
Smell is assessed in the temporal lobe as well as the
Mechanoreceptors are associatedw with touch, pressure, stretch, tension and vibration, and are found at the
joints and muscles
The inner ear is associated with hearing and
balance and coordination
Chemoreceptors are associated with smell and
changes in concentration of dissolved substances in the blood
thermoreceptors are associated with temperature changes and
regulating surface and core temperatures
Receptors associated with pain are called
Movement in arms, legs, hands, feet, trunk are activated depending on the fineness of motor nmovements in the
the _ nuclei provide similar function to motor neurons, but associataed with the head, nec,k, face and eyes
cranial nerve motor nuclei
The ARAS is found in the
The ARAS causes activation/arousal of the _ when awake, but inhibition does so to the thalamus
activation of the anterior hypothalamus causes _, whereas activation of the posterior hypothalamus causes _