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1

Traditional localization of speech production disabilities:
perisylvian area of cortex

- phonological disabilities

2

Traditional localization of speech production disabilities:
Broca/s area/higher level subcortical areas

- oral/verbal dyspraxias

3

Traditional localization of speech production disabilities:
motor nuerons to tongue, lips, soft palate and possibly subcortical areas: e.g., basal ganglia and cerebellum

- dysarthrias

4

Across the lifespan (these are associated with _ disabilities):
phonological delays/disabilities
apraxia of speech
dysarthrias

- developmental

5

Across the lifespan (these are associated with _ disabilities):
aphasias
apraxia of speech
dysarthrias

acquired disabilities

6

Across the lifespan (these are associated with developmental disabilities):
phonological delays/disabilities include
phonological processes
word retrieval challenges
nonword repetition
reading delays
and...

- writing difficulties

7

Across the lifespan (these are associated with acquired disabilities):
aphasias -
paraphasias
neologisms
nonword repetition
word retrieval challenges
and...

- reading/writing deficits

8

Paraphasias can be phonemic (e.g., /flIt vs /fIlm/) or

- semantic (book vs film)

9

A category of sound relating to meaning is called a

- phoneme

10

Dyslexia is a difficulty with recognizing

- phonemes, there things "do not sound right"

11

As language becomes more mature, its structure tends to _, which suggests that

- localize
- immature skills are more global

12

Underlying causes of phonological disabilities:
immature or inaccurate representations of individual phonemes or groups of phonemes. This includes:

- adding useful neurons as well as deleting ineffective ones

13

Underlying causes of phonological disabilities:
immature or ineffective organization of phonemes within the larger _ system

- phonological

14

Symptoms of a faulty phonological system:
difficulty developing expressive phonology, for example –

- intelligibility/speech production challenges

15

Symptoms of a faulty phonological system:
difficulty developing phonological/phonemic awareness skills, for example:

- impacts sound-symbol relationships and reading

16

Symptoms of a faulty phonological system:
phonological processing, for example:

difficulty recalling and repeating a sequence of phonemes/nonsense syllables or words

17

Symptoms of a faulty phonological system:
word learning and word retrieval, for example

difficulty in recalling and formulating words in conversation

18

Phonological processes (3) include:
syllable simplification
assimilation and

substitution

19

Phonological processes (3) include:
syllable simplification, which involves -
final consonant deletions,
unstressed syllable deletions and

cluster reduction

20

Phonological processes (3) include:
assimilation, which is either regressive/backward or

progressive/forward

21

Phonological processes (3) include:
substitution which includes -
stopping,
fronting,
gliding, or

glottalization

22

Patterns of phonological delay and disabilities:
reduced phonetic inventory, otherwise known as

knowing fewer speech sounds

23

Patterns of phonological delay and disabilities:
phoneme collapse, for example

"na na na"

24

Patterns of phonological delay and disabilities:
target-substitute relationship, or other known as

"order to the disorder"

25

Patterns of phonological delay and disabilities:
reduced intelligibility, or reduced knowledge of...

jargon

26

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
"do hate and cat rhyme"?

rhyme detection

27

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
"what rhymes with pot"?

rhyme production

28

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
clapping for "banana"

syllable counting

29

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
clap for "I see a dog"

word counting

30

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
say "butterfly", now don't say "fly"

syllable elision

31

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
"say "sky", now don't say /s/"

sound elision

32

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
what's the first sound in "cat"?

initial sound identification

33

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
what's the last sound in "cat"?

final sound identification

34

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
what am I saying: "c-a-t"

sound blending

35

Phonological awareness skills - the following is example of what:
say the sounds that make up "cat"

sound analysis

36

The ability to analyze and manipulate the phonological units of which sounds and syllables are composed is referred to as

phonological awareness

37

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
What are RDs?

reading disabilities, such as dyslexia

38

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
SSDs are

speech sound disorders

39

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
SLI is

specific language impairment

40

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
results are _, because _

results are mixed which may reflect the heterogeneous nature of the disabilities

41

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
strong empirical evidence that difficulties with _ skills are associated with RDs

phonological awareness skills

42

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
does the nature of the _ and/or phonological deficits differ among these groups?

speech perception

43

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
Do _ persist even after the children's speech, language or reading have been remediated?

perceptual difficulties

44

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
Are deficits purely segmental or more _?

global

45

Do children with SSDs, SLI and RDs have deficits in auditory processing and speech perception?
What are the contributions of bottom up? vs

top down processes

46

_ and _ are more rare, whereas more often issues with the perisylvian area involve phonological issues instead, although conditions can be _

dysarthrias and dyspraxias
comorbid

47

The good thing about those who are initially with a reading disorder will

eventually likely to become good readers

48

Theories of speech perception:
top-down approach refers to

prediction/anticipating

49

Theories of speech perception:
down-up approach refers to

perceptual/sensing

50

Theories of speech perception (2) are:

passive and active

51

Theories of speech perception:
passive -
is it simply a matter of _ lobe processing of the spectral input with an innate ability to categorically deal with speech i.e. speech is "special"?

temporal

52

Theories of speech perception:
passive -
passive listening shows _ activation of superior temporal lobe(s)

bilateral activation of superior temporal lobes

53

Theories of speech perception:
passive - higher order perceptual tasks for speech involve the _ hemisphere, indicative of _

left
discrimination (specific areas for different functions)

54

Theories of speech perception:
passive - does speech just require more temporally and _ fine-grained perception than do environmental sounds?

auditory

55

Speech requires _ aural perception

rapid

56

Theories of speech perception:
active - what role do _ "predictions" play in perception as evidenced by L2 studies)

phonological

57

Theories of speech perception:
active - does the "special" nature of speech perception use reference to the _ gestures of speech production?

articulatory

58

Theories of speech perception:
active - what role do phonological "predictions" play in perception as evidenced by L2 studies). an example of this is

foreign accents and different phonetics are incorrectly referenced to native ones

59

Theories of speech perception:
active - listening to _ in children or adults learning L2 result in more activation in Broca's area

novel words/pronunciation

60

If a child doesn't recognize consonants, SLP teaches child to _; only by practicing can the child learn (e.g. conversation vs. conservation)

specifically pronounce and/or read consonant to recognize that it is a closed consonant

61

Approach to speech perception disabilities involves:
bottom-up processes
top-down processes, and

special populations research

62

Approach to speech perception disabilities involves bottom-up processes, such as

data from fMRI, PET or ERPs

63

Approach to speech perception disabilities involves top-down processes, such as:
motor theory of speech perception
higher level language predictions and

neuroimaging data

64

Approach to speech perception disabilities involves special populations research, such as studying:
profound SN deafness, central deafness, and

children with impaired oral-motor skills

65

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
ABR, or mostly peripheral hearing, therefore some deaf children can use this

auditory brain stem responses

66

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
MMN or

mismatch negativity, associated with native language speech sounds

67

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
N100, otherwise known as

N1

68

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
PMN, or

phonological mapping negativity

69

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
CAEPs or

slow-wave cortical auditory evoked potentials

70

Slow-wave cortical auditory evoked potentials include:
P1
N1
_
_

P2, N2

71

ERPs in speech perception involve several waveforms including:
ABR
MMN
N1
PMN
CAEPs and

P300

72

Cochlea/organ of _

corti

73

Bottom hair cells are the _ processes, bringing information in (bottom-up/_) to primary _ cortex

perceptual
afferent
primary auditory cortex

74

In the cochlea, mechanical energy moves the stapes, touching tectorial membrane and activates hair cells, creating _ energy

electrical

75

There exist both _ and _ hair cells

inner and outer

76

Inner hair cells connect to _ nerves ending in primary auditory cortex

afferent

77

Inner hair cells are _ arranged ie., specific areas associated with specific frequencies from the _ all the way to the primary auditory cortex

tonotopically
Organ of Corti

78

Inner hair cells involve _ frequency sounds from the apex of the cochlea and _ frequency sounds from the base

lower with apex
higher with base

79

The frequency of sounds is associated with the thickness/flexibility of the _ membrane

basilar

80

Outer hair cells receive _ signals from the CNS

efferent

81

Outer hair cells act as a(n) _ to the auditory signals, by _ lower intensity signals by approximately _ dB

amplifier
enhancing
50 dB

82

Outer hair cells that are damaged can result in recruitment/_, or sensorineural hearing loss

hyperacusis

83

The auditory nerve is the _ cranial nerve

8th

84

Auditory nerve (8th CN):
carries sound from the _ to the auditory cortex

inner ear

85

Auditory nerve (8th CN):
sound from each reaches both auditory cortices via _ and _ nerve fibres

ipsilateral and contralateral nerve fibres

86

Outer hair cells are associated with the _/_ signal

top-down/efferent

87

Inner hair cells are associated with the _/_

down-up/afferent

88

Auditory nerve (8th CN):
firings of the auditory nerve are associated with waveforms that are picked up in the

brain stem, i.e. the superior olive, inferior colliculus, and medial gesiculate body

89

The brain stem is composed of these three structures associated with hearing:
superior olive
_ and
gesiculate body

inferior colliculus

90

Auditory brain stem responses are associated with characteristics of ASDs/SLI/SSDs, and

ABR

91

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - _ positive to negative waveforms elicited 2 - 20 ms. post-stimulus

7 positive

92

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - reflect firing of _ neurons from the cochlea through the brain stem

auditory neurons

93

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - look at delayed peaks, inter-peak _, and amplitude

latencies

94

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - Wave I from the _ portion of CN8, or the hair cells

peripheral

95

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - Wave II - from the _ portion of CN8

central

96

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - Wave 3 - from the _ nucleus

cochlear

97

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - Wave 4 - from the _ _ complex/lateral lemniscus

superior olivary complex

98

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR - Wave 5 - generated by the lateral lemniscus/_ _

inferior colliculus

99

Auditory brain stem responses:
ABR is typically measured by _

audiologists

100

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs are typically measured by _

SLPs

101

The brain stem measures _ hearing

peripheral

102

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs:
abnormalities from the _ which may be associated with difficulties orienting to sound

olivary complex in the brain stem

103

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs:
_ reflexes respond to thresholds of discomfort - are they reduced in ASD?

stapedial reflexes

104

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs:
increased latency of Wave +, especially in right ear, coming in too late

Wave 5, generated by the lateral lemniscus/inferior colliculus

105

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs:
impairments increase with increasing _ of stimuli i.e., greater _ for speech stimulicompared to "clicks" (except for ASDs)

complexity
aberrations

106

Auditory brain stem responses:
ASDs/SLI/SSDs:
less efficient in encoding speech in the presence of _

noise

107

ASD is associated with _ latency

reduced latency times

108

ASDs/SLI/SSDs associated with:
increased latency (except ASDs)
waves absent, and/or

decreased amplitude

109

ERPs and language development: speech sounds are featured in 12 months or younger, whereas _ and _ as a part of _ are associated with up to 3 years of age

lexical meaning and syntax, as a part of language

110

Early acoustic analysis of speech and other complex auditory stimuli - fMRI data:
initially _ dorsal superior temporal gyri perform early acoustic analysis on speech and other auditory signals

bilateral

111

The signal for CPS will not be visible on fMRI until 3 or 4 months of age, whereas _ will be visible at birth

MMN

112

Auditory MMN:
associated with _ processing of auditory stimuli

preattentive, automatic

113

Preattentive, automatic processing of auditory stimuli is associated with babies not having

to be aware the task is occurring

114

Auditory MMN:
waveforms generated by weird stimuli detection "subtracted" from standard stimuli is referred to as the _ paradigm

oddball

115

Auditory MMN:
are present...

at birth

116

Auditory MMN:
peaks at _ ms post stimulus

150-250

117

Auditory MMN:
asociated with bilateral posterior _ cortices, and possibly some frontal lobe contribution

supratemporal

118

Auditory MMN:
ASDs found shorter latencies and _ amplitudes for itch modulations but results are not unequivocal

larger amplitudes

119

Auditory MMN:
ASDs tend to be hyper-responsive only at the _ stage and/or _ stage

auditory/phonetic

120

Auditory MMN:
SLI may be absent or diminished for speech and nonspeech sounds, or may take longer for _ to occur

lateralization

121

When would kids not elicit MMN?

when a child has not been exposed to a foreign consonant
e.g., Japanese kids not recognizing /l/

122

Kuhl's Native language neural commitment hypothesis suggests that early language experiences change neural architecture and connectivity, reflecting

patterns in speech

123

Kuhl's native language neural commitment hypothesis suggests a _ effect

bi-directional

124

Kuhl's hypothesis is known as the _ _ neural _ hypothesis

native language neural commitment hypothesis

125

The bi-directional effect of Kuhl's native language neural commitment hypothesis (NLNC) involves: neural coding which improves detection of

native language units

126

The bi-directional effect of Kuhl's native language neural commitment hypothesis (NLNC) involves: simultaneously neural coding improving detction of native language units and reduced attention to _

nonnative language input/units

127

According to Kuhl's native language neural commitment hypothesis (NLNC), stronger/earlier native phonetic abilities is associated with improved _

higher level language learning e.g., vocab and grammar

128

According to Kuhl's native language neural commitment hypothesis (NLNC), excellent non-native phonetic abilities does not promote

language learning skills
i.e., "losing" the ability to detect non-native differences is associated with improved vocab and language development

129

According to Kuhl:
a study with 4 groups of English infants who were or were not exposed to Mandarin in a variety of contexts had shown that only children exposed to Mandarin with _ were able to detect/discriminate the Mandarin syllables

exposed with companions

130

The result of social interaction theory suggests that some children continue _ longer than other groups, i.e.,

stage 1, i.e., discerning phonetics for native language(s)

131

Closure positive shift:
present no later than _ months in NT individuals

8 months

132

Closure positive shift:
are large _ waveform measured over central electrode sites

positive

133

Closure positive shift:
appears related to _ features reflecting segmentation of the speech signal

prosodic

134

Closure positive shift:
ultimately, will play a role in _ decisions

syntactic

135

Closure positive shift:
may play a role in code-switching in _ learners

bilingual language learners

136

N100 is associated with:
response to basic _ properties of stimulus (loudness, brightness)

physical

137

N100 is associated with:
various modalities, and initial "_" to the stimulus

"orienting"

138

N100 is more prominent in _ people

older

139

N100 is associated with:
initial _ trace and spatially associated with the _

initial STM trace and spatially associated with the STG

140

Except ASD kids do not have an "orienting" thing, due to _ - excessive concentration on particular idea, often resulting in difficulties switching

monotropism

141

N100 is associated with:
thought to reflect stress and may contribute to _ of the auditory signal

segmentation

142

N100 is associated with:
behaving differently with _ fort he segmentation function - again due to individual differences

second language learners

143

N100 is also different according to _ vs non-_ languages

tonal vs non-tonal

144

Phonetic and phonological processing is associated with the left superior _ _

temporal sulcus

145

Broca's area is also involved in _, usually only becoming active in children from 4 to 6 months of age

phonetic and phonological processing

146

The left posterior temporal sulcus is involved with phonological processing, which is also referred to as

recognition of sound familiarity

147

Phonological processing is found in the anterior supratemporal gyrus, and is associated with _, i.e., speech

increasing acoustic complexity

148

_ is consistently relating to disambiguation of speech sounds by reference to articulatory gestures

Broca's area, left hemisphere

149

_ relates to auditory attention and categorization

SMG

150

Clearly, several processing streams are related (anatomical sites and connectivity) for

phonological processing

151

Speech vs non-speech sounds:
both left and right _ temporale and STG are involved in early auditory processing

planar temporale

152

Left planar temporale is also activated without _ input e.g., when imagining speaking

without auditory input

153

When the planar temporale are the same size, this presents the likelihood of _, due to conflict for domination

stuttering

154

Planar temporale may be a site of _ and _

bottom-up and top-down processes

155

Left BA and SMG/AG appear to relate to auditory _ _ and perhaps the phonological/articulatory loop

auditory working memory

156

P1, N1, and P2 are strongly associated with _ attributes of a signal
e.g., duration, rise time, loudness, ISI, and _

physical
complexity

157

N2 appears more "_" features such as higher level processing and cognitive functions

top down

158

Spatially, the P1, N1, P2 are located in various regions of the _ cortex

temporal

159

Various findings for CAEPs have shown _ latencies for N100 in ASDs

reduced

160

Various findings for CAEPs have shown reduced _ found for various components

reduced amplitudes

161

Various findings for CAEPs have shown ASDs have similar patters in _ compared to Normal types in _ environments

quiet vs loud

162

Various findings for CAEPs have shownin sum, _ patterns are seen at all levels, for both speech and _

atypical patterns
speech and nonspeech

163

When making a graph of CAEPs, the variable on the x axis is

time after stimulus (ms)

164

When making a graph of CAEPs, the variable on the y axis is

the potential (miuV)

165

P1 is found at _ ms

100

166

N1 is found at _ ms

100

167

P2 is found at _ ms

200

168

N2 is found at _ ms

200

169

P3 is found at _ ms

300

170

When graphing CAEPs, the only wave that exists above (indicating a NEGATIVE) charge, is

N1 (although N2 nears 0)

171

Phonological mapping negativity:
auditory but _ response (equally responsive to words and non-words) are shown in phonological mapping negativity

prelexical

172

Phonological mapping negativity peaks at around _ ms

270 to 310

173

Phonological mapping negativity appears related to _

phonological awareness

174

Phonological mapping negativity appears absent in _

poor and dyslexic readers

175

Phonological mapping negativity is located in tnhe left _ area (including temporal, frontal, and inferior parietal areas)

Perisylvian area

176

Phonological mapping negativity suggests it reflects the stage of transformration of _ information into a _ code

acoustic information to a phonological code

177

Phonological mapping negativity possible is the first stage in which _ interact

"top down" and "bottom up" processes interact