Week 5 Flashcards Preview

Differential Diagnosis > Week 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

women who have this disease are at greatest risk for cardiovascular problems

diabetes

2

Atypical symptoms in women

-severe episodic fatigue and weakness causing decreased ability to perform ADLs
-sleeping difficulty
-nausea

3

Chronic stable angina

-no pain at rest
-pain with physiological or emotional stress
-consistent location, duration, intensity
-relieved by rest and nitroglycerine

4

Resting angina (angina decubitus)

-pain at rest in supine position at the same time every day
-not affected by rest or exercise

5

Unstable angina

-abrupt change in intensity/frequency of pain or decreased threshold of stimulus
-most common trigger is bursting of cholesterol filled plaques
-lasts longer than usual
-unrelieved by rest/nitroglycerin=higher risk for mi
-IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTN!

6

Nocturnal angina

-awakens person from sleep with same sensation experienced during exertion
-associated with underlying CHF

7

Atypical angina

-unusual symptoms (toothache, earache) related to physical or emotional exertion
-rest and nitro decrease symptoms

8

Prinzmetals (variant) angina

s/s similar to typical but caused by coronary artery spasm rather than plaque buildup
-occurs at rest and in morning, cyclic, same time each day

9

Trigger points in obliques

-can mimic heart burn

10

Who is most likely to have a silent infarct?

-smokers
-diabetics
-elderly

11

Pericarditis

-inflammation of the pericardium
-primary condition or secondary to disease/trauma
-acute or chronic
-often idiopathic

12

S/S pericarditis

-chest pain
-dyspnea
-increased HR and temp
-malaise
-myalgia
-mimcs MI, but differentiated by pattern or relieving/aggravating factors

13

S/S left ventricular failure

-pulmonary congestion or respiratory distress
-breathlessness, exhaustion, LE edema
-paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-orthopnea
-cough
-nocturia

14

S/S right ventricular failure

-dependent edema in LEs

15

DVT risk factors

-women more than men
-personal/family hx
-CHF
->50
-contraceptives
-immobilization
-obstetric/gynecologic conditions
-obesity
-neoplasm
-PM
-trauma
-blood disorders
-infection
-DM

16

NSAIDS - monitor for?

-GI pain
-LE and abdominal swelling if combined with diuretics

17

Diuretics- monitor for?

-electrolyte imbalance
-muscle weakness/spasm
-dizziness
-nausea

18

Beta blockers - monitor for?

-PRE bc HR is unreliable
-depression
-excessive slowing of HR
-fatigue

19

Alpha 1 blockers - monitor for?

-hypotension
-reflex tachycardia

20

Ace inhibitors - monitor for?

-rash
-persistent dry cough

21

Ca channel blockers - monitor for?

-swelling
-orthostatic hypotension
-headache
-nausea

22

Nitrates - monitor for?

-headaches
-dizziness
-tachycardia
-orthostatic htn

23

Atrial fibrillation

-most common cardiac dysrrhythmia
-not immediately lethal
-can increase risk of heart failure and stroke

24

Risk factors for fibrillation

-previous heart attack
-high BP
-CHF
-digitalis toxicity
-pericarditis
-rheumatic mitral stenosis

25

Sinus tachycardia

-HR >100bpm

26

Sinus bradycardia

-HR <60bpm
-normal in athletes or young adults
-usually a benign arrhythmia

27

If sinus bradycardia with S/S

-place in horizontal position
-s/S include weaknes, sweating, pallor, nausea, vomiting, distortion or dimming of vision
-physican referral only when chest pain, dyspnea, lightheadedness, hypotension occur

28

Transient ischemic attack

-blood supply to brain temporarily disrupted
-may last 5-20 mins, up to 24 hours
-progression of cerebrovascular disease
-"mini stroke"
-without tx 10-20% will have a major stroke within 3 months, many within 48 hours

29

1st s/s of arterial disease

-hair loss on the toes

30

Peripheral artery aneurysms

usually affect the femoral and popliteal arteries
-most common site is in the popliteal space