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Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (37)
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1

Most likely cause of a productive cough with purulent sputum

Infection

2

Most likely cause of a productive cough with non-purulent sputum

Airway irritation

3

Rust colored sputum

Sign of pneumonia

4

Clubbing

thickening/widening of terminal phalanges of fingers - painless
-results from conditions that chronically interfere with tissue perfusion and nutrition
-cause: hypoxia

5

Apneustic breathing

-gasping inspiration with short expiration
-result of basilar artery infarct

6

Ataxic/biot's breathing

-irregular pattern of deep and shallow breaths with abrupt pauses
-caused by disruption of the respiratory rhythm generator in the medulla

7

Cheyne-stokes respiration

-caused by severe CHF, renal failure, meningitis, drug overdose, increased ICP

8

Pleural pain

-sharp, locatlized pain aggravated by respiratory movement
-alleviated by lying on the affected side (AUTOSPLINTING)

9

Acid-base regulation (acidosis, alkalosis)

Normal pH: 7.35-7.45
Acidosis= 7.45 (most common cause is hyperventilation)

10

Asthma

-primarily inflammatory (previously though to be obstructive)
-hyperreactivity to allergen causing bronchoconstriction
-inflammation causes air passage swelling and excess mucous production

11

Status asthmaticus

-severe bronchospasms can lead to acute cor pulmonale (bp drop of more than 10 mmHG)
-if prolonged, could lead to pneumothorax, respiratory or cardiac arrest

12

Risk factors for pneumonia

-immunocompromised
-older or bedridden due to limited mobility
-pneumocystis carinii is common in pt's with AIDS (used to indicated HIV has progressed to AIDs)

13

Abnormal pneumonia signs

-altered mental status and shoulder pain in older patients

14

Pott's disease

-TB of the spine
-may lead to compression fractures

15

S/S systemic sclerosis lung disease

-skin changes preceding visceral alterations (sclerodactyly)
-interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis is teh most common pulmonary manifestation

16

Respiratory acidosis

-can cause hyperkalemia and cardiac changes (cardiac arrest)
-retention of carbon dizoide
-S/S:
*decreased ventilation, confusion, sleepiness, unconsciousness, diaphroesis, shallow/rapid breathing, cyanosis

17

Respiratory alkalosis

-increased RR and depth decrease the available CO2
-anxiety, pain, cerebral trauma
-can result in muscular tetany and convulsions
-S/S
*hyperventilation, lightheadedness, dizziness, numbnuess, tingling of face, fingers, toes, syncope

18

COPD

-leading cause of morbidity and mortality in smokers

19

Bronchitis

-membrane lining and bronchiole tubes most affected

20

Chronic bronchitis

-anyone who coughs for 3 months per year for 2 consecutive years without have precipitating diseases
-persistent cough with production of sputum

21

Bronchiectasis

-progressive pulmonary disorder that occurs after infections such as childhood pneumonia or CF

22

Epmhysema

-treatment involves routine progressive exercise, pursed-lip breathing, cessation of smoking

23

Centrilobular emphysema

-most common
-destroys bronchioles (upper lung), but alveolar sac remains intact

24

Panlobular emphysema

-destroys most distal alveolar walls (lower lungs)
-often due to smoking

25

Paraseptal emphysema

-destroys alveoli in lower lobes of lungs resulting in isolated blebs along lung periphery
-can cause spontaneous pneumothorax

26

PE risk factors

-blood stasis
-endothelial injury
-hypercoaguable state

27

Signs of DVT

-tenderness, leg pain, swelling, warmth, subcutaneous venous distention, discoloration, palpable cord, pain upon placement of a blood pressure cuff around calf

28

% of DVT cases that are asymptomatic

50%

29

S/S PE

-nonspecific and vary greatly
-presentation is the same for young and old
-dyspnea, pleuritic pain, cough, hemoptysis, tachypnea, fever

30

Factors that reduce likelihood of PE

-age 95%
-no hemoptysis
-no estrogen use
-no prior DVT, PE
-no unilateral leg swelling
-no surgery or trauma in past 4 weeks

31

Cor pulmonale

-serious cardiac condition and an emergency situation arising from a sudden dilatation of the right ventricle as a result of PE
-S/S are similar to CHF: dyspnea, edema of LE, distention of veins in neck, liver distention
-hematocrit increased to compensate

32

Pleurisy

-inflammation of pleura caused by infection, injury, trauma
-s/S: chest pain, cough, dyspnea, fever/chills, tachypnea
-aggravated by breathing, coughing, laughing

33

Abrupt onset of dyspnea in healthy person?

-could be spontaneous pneumothorax!
-peak incidence 20-40 years old

34

When air enter pulmonary cavity, the lung collapses causing tissues and organs to shift to...?

The unaffected side

35

Risk factors for lung cancer

-smoking, >50, passive smoker, low fruits/veggies, genetics, previous lung disease
-first s/s may be chest, shoulder, arm pain

36

Cystic fibrosis

-defect in CF transmembrane conductance regulator that provides channel for chloride to pass in/out
-S/S: tachypnea, cough with mucous production, barrel chest, cyanosis with digital clubbing, exertional dyspnea
-life expectancy into 20's, (max 30-40s)

37

Byssinosis

-brown lung disease
-caused by dust from hemp, flax and cotton processing
-results in chronic obstruction and impaired lung function
-"occupational lung disease"