Flashcards in Weeks 4 to 6 Deck (20):
list the 3 demographic transitions
-Declining death rate
-Rising life expectancy
-lower fertility rates
List the 4 stages in population
1. slow growth; high birth and death rates
2. rapid population growth; slowly declining birth rate, rapidly declining death rate
3.rapid growth in population, birth rate declining to replacement level, death rate remains low
4.population stability/decline, low birth and death rate
What contributes to declining death rates
-treatments for infection diseases
-improvement in sanitation
-improved lifestyle choices
When did gender become relevant to planning?
60s, women are working more, used to just be in the kitchen, but now we are everywhere, also women have complex trip patterns
According to Jane Jacobs, what are the 3 ways of achieving safety in city?
-clear distinction between public and private space
-eyes on the street
-continuous use of public space
What is interactional vanndalism?
when you break the code of mutual indifference and start talking to strangers.
What are the UN safe cities priority outcomes?
1. generate evidence and build partnerships
2. develop and implement legislation
3. invest in the safety and economic viability of public spaces
4. transform social norms
What are the 3 main causes of deviant/delinquent behaviours?
-pathological response to social/physical environment
-certain environments attract certain kinds of people
-physical/social environmental cues trigger behaviour
Explain the Crowding Theory
-high residential density/ crowding increases stress leading to aggressive behavior/ mental illness. like territoriality in animals, intraspecies competition, where animals have to be on edge and fight for resources. (i.e.Gang tagging)
Explain the compositional theory
basically birds of the same feather flock together (i.e. gayborhoods)
Explain the broken windows theory
small acts of vandalism will encourage more crime and deviance
what is CPTED?
-Crime prevention through environmental design
-ray jeffery 1971
-features of built environment that facilitate feat of/actual crime through design, designation, and definition
what are the 3 core principles of CPTED?
-natural access control
Why is housing important?
-Basic social condition
-determine quality of life
-1st level on Maslow's hierarchy of needs
-human right according to Universal Declaration
in order for housing to be acceptable in Canada, what 3 components must housing qualify?
-adequate (in good shape)
-affordable (<30% of income)
T or F, suitability is the biggest influence on acceptability/core housing need
F, affordability is
What demographic groups in Canada tend to have core housing needs?
-seniors living alone
What is social housing?
-government/NGO owned housing that is offered to residents at reduced cost (rent geared to income)
What are the drivers of housing affordability?
-cheap lending rates
-supply & demand