Western Civilizations (Middle Ages to Renaissance, Europe with Russia) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Western Civilizations (Middle Ages to Renaissance, Europe with Russia) Deck (105):

In A.D. 395, the Roman empire was split into Western and Eastern branches



The Eastern Roman Empire ruled from Constantinople (Istanbul), also a design style



Rebuilt on the site of a centuries-old basilica in Constantinople by Emperor Justinian I

Hagia Sophia


High level of technological achievement of the classical times was eroded by the destruction of libraries and classics; Christianity was the common religious belief; reverted to the provincialism of pre-Roman times; majority of creative effort was directed toward defensive or religious objectives; the landscape arts were intuitive rather than conscious design, and the contemporary appeal lay largely in the message of symbolism

Middle Ages


Autonomous or semi-self sufficient; orderly arrangement of facilities; its central open space (cloister) as the focus of the complex



Commissioned by Bishop Odo to illustrate the events surrounding the Norman invasion of England in 1066; 230 ft. long embroided cloth at the Battle of Hastings, which led to the imposition of the European feudal system on Britain (1070)

Bayeux Tapestry


One of a Teutonic people, or Germanic tribes, of the third to fifth centuries A.D.; who invaded and settled in the Roman Empire



Named after the barbarian tribes; the style of Medieval architecture in Europe from the mid-twelfth century to the Renaissance



A style of arch popular in France and elsewhere in Europe from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries; tall and pointed

Gothic Arch


Person who wrote a gardening manual, De Vegetabilibus et Plants, based on ancient Roman and contemporary treatises; described a pleasure garden and included detailed instructions for creating a "flowery mead" (1260)

Albertus Magnus


Writer of Liber Ruralium Commodorum; practical advice on agricultural estate management at various scales, which was valuable to villa designers of the Italian Renaissance (1305)

Piero de' Crescenzi


The epidemic spread along active trade routes, which struck Europe, killing one-third to one-half of the population (1346)

Black Death


His coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 CE brought about a degree of stability to western Europe, and shored up the papacy's hold on its land; wrote Capitulare de villis, or regulations on the administration of imperial towns



Spiritual and mystical communities which formed apart from the secular world; under it, the ideal of planning and order no longer applied to the world at large but to the enclosed world of the community



The primary activity of life in the early Middle Ages



A Medieval enclosed yard or garden; in Latin, "enclosed garden"; used as a symbol of Mary's virginity

Garth or Hortus Conclosus


Symbolic flowers during the medieval times

Lilies - purityRoses - martyrdomViolets - humility


A garden created for pleasure, a safe place for both reflection and recreation; a garden during the Medieval times; enclosed within the walls or ramparts of a castle



Contained more ornamental plants and trees than the herbarium, which contained the more utilitarian aspects of the pleasance; an orchard, which doubles as a cemetery



A 13th-century allegory of courtly love begun by the French poet Guillaume de Lorri, and completed by Jean de Meun; its illustrations and descriptions of the story's setting are sources of information on all aspects of medieval life, the form and function of medieval garden

Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose)


A 9th-century document, and an important source of information about medieval gardens; the visionary drawings illustrates the layout of a model Benedictine monastery, depicting a sustainable community

Plan of St. Gall


A small medieval garden for the cultivation of medicinal plants; often associated with a castle or monastic cloister

Herbularius or Physic Garden


A garden developed for the production of edible vegetables; sometimes adjunct to the pleasure gardens of the aristocracy in ancient and medical times

Hortus or Kitchen Garden


A Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily in the Middle Ages, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen; liberally encouraged the arts and sciences and founded the first university, the University of Naples

Frederick II


Italian for a flat open plain; the countryside

Campagna (Campo or French "Champaign")


This peninsula varies from flat in the south to mountainous in the north; extremely hot and dry in the south to lush, cool, and temperate in the Alps of the north; good agricultural lands



A trust in human intellect, a belief in the creative abilities and rational capacities of human beings; a characteristic flavor of the cultural phase of the Renaissance



An Italian poet and early humanist, studied the art and literature of antiquity; fostered scholarship based on classical ideals



The person who described how to construct a perspective grid in his treatise on painting, Della pittura (1435); also articulated the systematized design theory in his ten-volume book De Re Aedificatoria (1452)

Leon Battista Alberti


A 15th-century novel attributed to Francesco Colonna, a Dominican monk; became a source book of design ideas for gardeners as it describes in detail the plant species which shed light on the horticultural content of early Renaissance gardens

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili


A native Tuscan village, rebuilt by Pope Pius (1459) as one of the earliest models of Renaissance town planning; with organized palace, church, and town hall as a single urban entity embodying the classical concept of civitas - the balance of people, nature, and government



Center of humanist thought, the cradle of early Renaissance activity



An intellectual awakening that looked to Greece and Rome rather than the Church for authority

Florentine humanism


An aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century, with power assumed initially by Cosimo the Elder (1389-1464)



Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446); completed the design of the dome on the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, Flowerence

Filippo Brunelleschi


Center of humanist thought, the cradle of early Renaissance activity; center of the wool and cloth trade, and a cultural capital of 15th-century Europe



Italian concept of escape from the city to the countryside which embodied the classical values of otium (withdrawal) and negotium (engagement); a Roman practice that became popular again during the 15th century



A villa designed by Michelozzo Michelozzi at Fiesole; considered as the first true Renaissance villa that functioned as philosophical retreats; has a similar idea to that of the Generalife at Granada

Villa Medici


An architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level; the outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches



An Italian word describing a small garden set apart from the main garden of a rural Renaissance garden, providing greater privacy than available in the larger; replaced the hortus conclosus of the Middle Ages

Giardino segreto (secret garden)


A historical building in Florence, Italy, designed by Brunelleschi, who received the commission in 1419 from the Arte della Seta; originally a children's orphanage

Ospedale degli Innocenti


Many independent republics; some of which were continuously at war with one another; all was Catholic, with allegiance to the Pope in Rome; humanism became the new philosophical outlook

Italian Renaissance


French for a new birth or revival; term used for the revival of classic learning and art in Europe during the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries



Proposed a heliocentric model of the universe, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

Nicolaus Copernicus


The new power center of the Renaissance in the 16th century after Florence



A church of San Pietro in Montario, considered as the first Renaissance building; it is designed by Donato Bramante using a classical vocabulary of design and proportion

Tempietto, Rome


Ornamental arrangement of flowerbeds with paths of gravel, pavement, or turf, a knot garden; subdivided ground plan of a garden that formed patterns

Parterre (French par "on" and terre "earth")


Commissioned to Donato Bramante (1444-1514) by Pope Julius II, to link the hillside pavilion with the main papal palace, and provide a venue for festivals and display of sculpture ; reminiscent of the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia (c. 82 BC)

Cortile del Belvedere, Vatican City (Rome)


Made in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio, who developed the thematic content and engineered the steep slope to create a series of terraces and water features, also based on Roman antiquity; Hercules as the sophisticated iconography of the villa

Villa d'Este, Tivoli


Gained a reputation as the preeminent architect if the ideal agrarian villa; wrote I Quattro Libri dell'Archittettura (1570); developed precise ratios for the heights and widths of rooms, typical elements included a square hall, a loggia,a pedimented "temple" front, and steps that led to the piano nobile; his hallmark was site planning rather than garden design



Invented by early Netherlandish painters in 1420; artists like Jan Van Eyck captured realistic details, rich coloration, and deep modeling with the new slow-drying medium

Oil paint


A style of 16th-century Italian art preceding the Baroque, characterized by unusual effects of scale, lighting, and perspective, and the use of bright, often lurid colors; representing an individual's imagination and creative power rather than a divine order (Italian word for 'hand' - mano)



The most extreme example of Mannerist distortion, located at Bomarzo (1552-1583); consists of a tilted house, colossal sculptures, etc.

Sacro Bosco of Count Orsini (Park of Monsters)


Constructed from 1566-1570 on a hilltop near the town of Vicenza, designed by Andrea Palladio, has no agricultural component; displays quadripartite symmetry about a round central hall, with four identical porticos; notably marks the end of an era in landscape design, yet paradoxically, opened the way towards a new conception of landscape required by an ideal building

Villa Rotonda


Continental European temperate climate with cold, snowy winters and warm, sunny summers supporting a rich agricultural productivity; politically unified country by mid-16th century with the king as absolute ruler



The king of France who invaded Italy in 1495, thus France experienced the first flush of Renaissance; he brought with him Italian craftsmen and artists at Amboise in the Loire Valley

Charles VIII


Birthplace of Louis XIII where the gardens are still medieval in their compartmentation, but their size and independence from the house reflect the growing love of the Renaissance landscape; designed by Pacello



Place where Francis I moved the court when he assumed the throne in 1515 upon the death of his uncle, Louis XII; designed by Serlio



Person who came to power under Louis XVIII; who unified France and laid the fountains of absolute monarchy, and ushered in a new pure French concept of comprehensive planning and space design

Cardinal Richelieu


Chateau in Touraine where the landscape was a unified design carved out of woods, with decorative canals arising from drainage, and inclusive of a town as a subsidiary element; the design concept by J. Le Mercier prepared the way for the work of Le Notre

Chateau de Richelieu


A small island with subtle landscape variations, from the rocky coasts of the southwest in Cornwall to the flat expanses of the east coast in East Anglia to the Pennine moorlands of Yorkshire and Northumberland; politically unified under a monarch (king or queen), with parliamentary form of government



The civil strife between the Houses of York and Lancaster, which ended when Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and assumed the throne as King Henry VII

War of the Roses


During his reign, the most significant garden advancements were made

Henry VIII (1509-1547)


(1480-1603) Period that describes the great increase in rural estate development following reformation and subsequent redistribution of monastic land holdings to Henry VIII's friends ("landed gentry")

Tudor Period


(1558-1603) A transition period to larger, more formal, ornate gardens; axial master plans began; increased use of topiary; increased influence from the European continent

Elizabethan Period


Garden style with low, clipped evergreen shrubs and aromatic herbs that formed "knots"

Knot gardens


An Elizabethan garden that dates from 1580 its garden compartments cross the straight line of sight created by the entry road and allee; the stoned steps and balustraded walls of the forecourt create a unified architectural ensemble; its garden terraces re;ate the lines of the house

Montacute, Somerset


A river described by Joseph Addison as the noblest in Europe, bordered by lush meadows, luxurious trees, and rich diversification of architecture and gardens

River Thames


A complex of different dates and architects but the most monumental and coordinated of all English landscape plans

Greenwich Hostpial


One of the earlierst botanic gardens, known as the "Gardens of the simples," typically oriented to the cardinal directions, and contained a central well; the organization of the planting beds reflected the order of the universe; its circular beds are located in square compartments, and the four-square compartments are confined within a larger circle

Orto Botanico, Padua


(1603-1625) Period where there is increased influence from Italy; when Inigo Jones returned from study in Italy and Vitruvius translated into English (Italian purism)

Jacobean Period


(1610) Published by Galilero, the first teratise based on observations made through telescp[e; a short astronomical theories, some pertains to heliocentric universe

Sidereus Nuncius


(1615) A French engineer and architect that published a treatise on waterworks, Les Raisons des Forces Mouvantes; He and his brother, Isaac, studied Italian garden design, and were influential in introducing Mannerist and Baroque styles to norther Europe and England

Salomon de Caus


de Cause's greatest built landscae, located in Heidelfberg, Germany; its garden terraces are the ultimate expression of a medieval garden; was called the eight wonder of the world; it was destroyed in the Thirty Yeats War

Hortus Palatinus (Garden for the Elector Palatine)


(1656-1667)Commissioned by Pope Alexander VII to design a new piazza for St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome; his work is the consummate expression of Baroque space and urban drama, with a narrowing trapezoidal piazza that leads from the basilica into the large oval piazza, defined by an elegant elliptical collonade

Gian Lorenzo Bernini


A disaster that destroyed the medieval city within the old Roman walls; King Charles commissioned the rebuilt of London with wider streets and grand squares; property owners reconstructed wood buildings with stone and brick

Great Fire of London


Rebuilt St. Paul's Cathedral that exemplified the new style that changed the look of London

Chrisptopher Wren


A French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who saw the universe as a mathematical construction; wrote the book La Geometrie that formed the basis of analytical geometry and outlined how coordinates can define a position in space; he also worked on optics

Rene Descartes


(1682) Person who received a charter from King Charles II to establish a Quaker colony in North America; developed a grid plan that allowed for central public space and public greens within each quadrant, and required that houses be placed in the middle of lots as a precaution against fire

William Pen


(1687) Person who discovered that the same force governed both the motion of the moon and a falling apple, and proved it mathematically

Sir Isaac Newton


A style characterized by a restlessness and exaggeration of detail; the rational vocabulary of circles and squares was supplemented by the introduction of spiral, oval, and diagonal geometries that kept the eye moving through space; the landscape space became more thetrical



A villa located at the town of Frascati in the Alban hills; designed by Giacomo della Porta and completed by Carlo Maderno (1603) (1598-1603), based on indigenous perspective to increase steepness; the villa is set on a large terrace, creating in the front a platform to launch sight lines and in the back a garden

Villa Aldobrandini


Garden first laid out by Niccolo Tribolo behind the Pitti Palace in Florence; a mixture of Roman Renaissance, Mannerism, and Baroque; the topography behind the palazzo was manipulated to form a "natural" amphitheater

Boboli Gardens


The dramatic, cypress-lined avenue leads down a slope to the Isolotto; looking down the space seems to expand, yet looking back up the alle, the distance appears comrpessed



Comprised of palace and terraced gardens of Count Carlo Borromeo on Lake Maggiore, made by Castelli and Carlo Fontana (1630-1670); a an architectonic fantasy that took over 40 years to complete, a rigid shiplike form or galleon

Isola Bella


Two gardens that are each a masterpiece of domestic Mannerism that reflect different moods of man

Villa Capponi, ArcetriVilla Gameraia, Settignano


The country, after being liberated from Spanish control, emereged as an economic power in the 17th century through the formation of internation trading companies and banks; its gardens reflected the modest tastes of the middle-class merchants; developed an enthusiasm for horticultural science and love of flowers




Vualt-shaped trellises


Patterns made primarily with flowers

Parterres de pieces coupees


A royal palace of William and Mary, exemplifying the 17th-century Dutch garden style; designed by Jacob Roman (Dutch) and Daniel Marot (French); destroyed by Louis Napoleon and covered it with a picturesque, English-style garden (18th century); restoredto its original form in 1979

Het Loo


A Tudor palace assumed control by Henry VIII in 1531; partly rebuilt by Wren as an English Versailles in 1699, when the park was laid out by London and Wise;

Hampton Court, Middlesex (London)


The two French designers appointedby Charless II as royal gardeners in the Hampton Court; introduced French formalism and spatial definition to Britain

Gabriel and Andre Mollet


The goose-foot pattern of radial avenues designed by the Mollets

Patte d'oie


The famous topiary garden laid out in 1694 by Guillaume Beaumont, a garden to King James II; the plan also included a rose garden, orchard, nuttery, herb, and vegetable gardens, bowling green, and a massive beech hedge

Levens Hall, Cumbria


A period of social and political unrest in which the French nobility rebelled against the king



King of France (1638-1715); his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles; proclaimed "L'Etat, c'est moi" (I am the State)

Louis XIV


A French gardener and the author of the Traite du jardinage (1638); worked for Marie de Medici at the Luxemborg gardens in Paris with Claude Mollet during the reign of Louis XIII; developed the parterre de broderie ("embroidery on the ground"); also laid the parterres at Versailles before Le Notre remodeled the entire place for Louise XIV

BOYCEAU, Jacques (d. 1633)


A French landscape designer who was the royal gardener for Louis XIV (the Sun King); enetually assumed his father's role as superintended of royal gardens

LE NOTRE, Andre (1613-1700)


The project wherein Andre Le Notre, Charles Le Brun, and Louis Le Vau teamed up to undertake work for Louis XIV's finance minister, Fouquet; epitomizes the spirit of the 17th-century French formal garden; the pools reflect the chateau, the station point of the vista

Vaux-Le-Vicomte, Maincy


The spaces between pieces of flat scenery on a stage or in a theater; the wings



Commissioned to Le Notre, Le Brun, and Le Vau by Louis XIV to convert his father's hunting lodge into an entertainment villa and, later, a royal palace; heliocentric iconography, inclding the imagery of Apollo, the god of the Sun, is pervasive at the site; the pools reflect the sun, a representation of the former king



A complex area regained by Prince de Conde in 1660; restored by Le Notre; the pools reflect nature - the woodlands, the sky, and the limitless imagination of the viewer; the chateau is subordinate to the monumental axis that organizes the landscape the project is primarily one of the spectacle of water pageantry



Influenced by contact with the Far East; with Mediterranean climate same as in Spain



A town and municipality in the state of Piauí in the Northeast region of Brazil; made at the end of the 17th century, consists of three elements, each drawn from a different background - the parterre (Italian Renaissance), the rectangular water-tank (Moorish), and the gallery lined with coloured tiles (Portuguese); added with a Baroque pool in the 18th century



Exotic style in Portugal (1500-onward); a Portuguese late Gothic style