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Flashcards in Wound Types And Characteristics Deck (94)
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1

Name the Four types of Ulcers.

1. Arterial Insufficiency Ulcers
2. Venous Insufficiency Ulcers
3. Neuropathic Ulcers
4. Pressure Ulcers (Decubitus Ulcer)

2

Where are arterial wounds most frequently located?

1. Lateral malleoli
2. Toes
3. Dorsum Feet

3

What is typically the etiology of arterial ulcers?

1. Atherosclerosis obliterans: intermittent claudication, rest pain, and tropic changes

2. Atheroembolism

4

Describe the appearance of arterial ulcers?

1. Irregular, smooth edges
2. Minimum to no granulation
3. Usually deep

5

What are some tell tale signs a patient may have arterial disease?

1. abnormal nail growth
2. Decreased leg & foot hair
3. Dry skin
4. Skin is cool upon palpation

6

Venous are arterial ulcers are painful.

Arterial ulcers are painful, especially with legs elevated

7

Gangrene may or may not be present with arterial ulcers.

May be present

8

True or False: Arterial ulcers will have drainage

False. No drainage will be present

9

What are some associate signs with arterial ulcers?

1. Trophic changes
2. Pallor on foot elevation
3. Dusky rubor on dependency

10

A type of insufficiency that is refers to a lack of adequate blood flow to a region or regions of the body

Arterial insufficiency

11

A type of insufficiency that refers to inadequate drainage of venous blood from a body part usually resulting in edema and.or skin abnormalities and ulcerations

Venous insufficiency

12

What is the most common cause of leg ulcers?

CVI (chronic venous insufficiency)

80% of ulcers are typically caused by venous insufficiency

13

Etiology of venous ulcers

1. Valvular incompetence
2. Venous hypertension

14

Describe the appearance of venous ulcers

1. Irregular; dark pigmentation, sometimes fibrotic
2. Good granulation
3. Usually shallow

15

Where are venous ulcers usually located?

1. Distal lower leg
2. Medial malleoli (proximal)

16

The pedal pulses will be absent with venous ulcers or arterial ulcers?

Arterial ulcers (absent)

Venous ulcers (present)

17

True or false: Venous ulcers great little pain, and with the pain that occurs typically elevation helps relieve this pain.

True

18

For venous ulcers, expect to see _______ amounts of ________.

Moderate amounts of exudate

19

What are associated signs with venous ulcers?

1. Edema
2. Statsis dermatitis
3. Possible cyanosis on dependency

20

What is the most common preventative and treatment therapeutic measure used for venous leg ulcers?

Compression

21

When is compression contraindicated for venous ulcers?

When ABI is <0.70 or patient has active DVT

22

A red wound indicates what?

Healthy granulating wounds; absence of necrotic tissue

23

A yellow wound indicates what?

Included slough (necrotic or dead tissue), fibrous tissue

24

A black wound indicates?

Covered with eschar (dried necrotic tissue)

25

What is an indolent ulcer

An ulcer that is slow to heal; is not painful

26

What is eschar?

hard/leathery, black/brown, dehydrated tissue that firmly adheres to wound bed

27

What is slough?

moist, stringy/mutinous, white/yellow tissue that tends to be loosely attached in clumps to wound bed

28

what is recommend for most ulcers to cleanse the wound?

Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl))

29

True or False: Whirlpool is not supported for wound care. PLWV is a more effective treatment alternative.

True

30

List the selective debridement options.

1. Autolytic debridement
2. Enzymatic debridement
3. Sharp debridement

31

Describe autolytic debridement

Use of body’s own mechanisms to remove viable tissue

Moist wound environment which hydrates necrotic tissue/eschar, facilitating enzymatic digestion of nonviable tissue

32

What are common methods of autolytic debridement?

Use of transparent film, hydrocolloids, and alginates

33

What are the indications for autolytic debridement?

1. Individuals on anticoagulant therapy
2. Patients who cannot tolerate other forms of debridement
3. All necrotic wounds that are medically stable

34

List the contraindications for autolytic debridement

1. Infected wounds
2. Dry gangrene or dry ischemic wounds
3. Individuals immunosuppressed

35

How many days is the autolytic dressing kept in place?

3-7 days

36

What is enzymatic debridement.

Application of topical agent that breaks down/liquifies necrotic tissue

37

The following are indications for which type of selective debridement: All moist necrotic wounds, eschar after cross-hatching, homebound individuals, and people who cannot tolerate surgical debridement

Enzymatic debridment

38

What are the contraindicaitons of enzymatic debridement?

1. Ischemic wounds unless adequate vascular s Tatum has been determined
2. Dry gangrene
3. Clean, granulated wounds

39

Describe sharp debridement.

Use of scale, scissors, and/or forceps to selectively rove devitalized tissue, foreign material or debris from wound

No anesthesia used

40

True or false: Sharp debridement can be used in the presence of cellulitis or sepsis

True

41

List the indications for sharp debridement

1. Scoring and/or excision of leathery eschar
2. Remove of moist necrotic tissue

42

List the Non-selective debridement techniques.

1. Wet - to - dry dressings
2. Wound irrigation (PLSW)
3. Hydrothermal

43

What medication is currently effective against all staphylococcus infections?

Bactroban ointment and gentamicicin

44

What modalities are commonly used for wounds to activate cells at the cellular level?

Electrical stimulation (ES) and ultrasound (US)

45

When using Estimate which form of estim should be used?

High-voltage pulsed current + Pulsed biphasic current

Continous waveform application with direct current

46

What is the purpose of estim in regards of wound managment?

Improve circulation, facilitate debridement, and enhance tissue repair

47

What protein is important to look at when trying to determine if delayed wound healing is a result of malnutrition?

Albumin

48

What are the normal values of albumin?

3.5-55 mg/dl

49

What values of albumin suggest malnutrition?

<3.5 mg/dl

50

What value of BMI with weight loss increases risk of pressure ulcers?

BMI = 21

51

How many liters of fluids (H20) should a person with wounds drink per day?

3 Liters

52

What kind of diet should patients with wounds be on?

High calorie/High protein diets

(25-35 kcal/kg/body weight)/1.5-2.5 gm/kg bod weight)

53

What is a common antiseptic used topically on wounds?

Providone-iodine

54

How often should a patient be turned in acute and rehabilitation hospitals to prevent pressure ulcers?

Every 2 hours

55

How often should a patient perform weight shifting if in a wheelchair to prevent pressure ulcers?

Every 15 minutes

56

List the types of dressing that can be used in wound care management?

Alginates
2. Foam dressing
3. Gauze
4. Hydrocolloids
5. Hydrogels
6. Transparent films

57

Describe characteristics of Alginates.

-Derived from calcium salt comment of aligning acid
-Highly absorptive, but Highly permeable (allows bacteria in)
- non occlusive
-Interacts with wound bed to create gel-like layer keeping wound moist
- absorb up to 20x its weight

58

How often should alginates be changed?

Varies from every 8 hrs to 2-3 days

59

When is alginates indicated?

When wounds has moderate to large amounts of exudate (and maybe necrosis)

When wounds require packing and absorption

*GOOD FOR AUTOLYTIC debridement

60

True or false: Alginates are non-adhering to the wound have often require a second dressing (transparent film or gauze pad) to keep them in place.

true

61

When should alginates not be used?

When tendons, joints/capsule, or bones are exposed

62

List characteristics of foam Dressings.

1. Made of hydrophilic ((wound surface)) and/or hydrophobic (outer layer
2.Semipermeable
3. Adhesive and non-adhesive
4. Absorbs exudate

63

How often should foam be changed?

Every 1-5 days; depends on the amount of exudate

64

What type of wounds are alginates usually used on?

Partial-thickness and full-thickness draining wounds + commonly used on infected wounds

I.e. pressure or venous insufficiency ulcers

65

Describe characteristics of gauze.

- most readily available (made from yarn or thread)
- Can be impregnated
- Good filler for larger wounds
-commonly used on infections
- Good mechanical debridement if done correctly
-Highly permeable

66

True or false: if gauze is too wet, it will macerate the surrounding skin

True

67

Which kind of gauze should be used for debridement?

Mesh gauze

68

Which kind of gauze should be used for protection?

Fine gauze

69

True or false: Gauze has an increased infection rate compared to occlusive dressings

True

70

Describe Hydrocolloids.

-consist of gel-forming polymers backed by strong film/adhesive
-Occlusive or semi-occlusive
- Does not attach wound bed but surrounding skin
-Absorbs exudate by swelling into gel-like mass
-Impermeable/water proof

71

What are the indications for hydrocolloids?

1. Protection of partial/full thickness wounds
2. Autolytic debridement of necrosis/slough
3. Wounds with MILD exudate

72

What type of wounds should hydrocolloids not be used on?

1. Wounds with heavy exudate
2. Sinus tracts/infections
3. Bone/tendon/fragile skin
4. Infected wounds

73

Name one disadvantage of hydrocolloids?

1. Non transparent

74

How large of a margin of healthy tissue should be left when applying hydrocolloid?

1 to 1.5 inches

75

How often should hydrocolloids be changed?

3-7 days

76

What is a common characteristic seen when using hyrdocolliods after removing dressing?

Odor with yellow exudate that is similar to pus (melted material); normal when dressing is removed

77

Which dressing is the most occlusive dressing of the moisture-retentive dressings?

Hydrocolloids

78

Which dressing is the dressing of choice during maggot debridement?

Hydrocolloids dressings

79

List characteristics of hydrogels (classified as amorphous)

- consist of water (@ least 90%) + gel-forming materials (glycerin)

80

Purpose of hydrogels?

1. Increase moisture in dry wound beds
2. Soften necrotic tissue
3. Support autolytic debridement

81

Which dressing can be used as a coupling agent for US?

Hydrogel

82

What kind of wounds are hydrogels used for?

1.Partial/full thickness wounds
2. Wounds with necrosis and slough
3. Burns and tissue damaged by radiation

83

How much absorption do hydrogels provided?

Mild to moderate absorption

84

List some disadvantages when using hydrogel dressings?

1. Requires second dressing
2.not used for heavily exudating wound
3. May dry out and adhere to wound
4. May macerate surrounding skin

85

How often should hydrogels be changed?

1-5 days

86

Describe transparent films.

Thin membranes made with water-resistant adhesives + highly elastic and contour well to body parts

Permeable to vapor and O2 + Impermeable to bacteria and H2O

Adhesive

87

What stage of ulcers would you want to use transparent films with?

Stage I and II pressure ulcers

88

What dressing can be used for skin donor sites?

Transparent films

89

True or False: Transparent films should be used for wounds with mod to large exudate.

False; Transparent films are nonabsorbtive, therefore should be used for wounds with minimal exudate (scalds, abrasions, lacerations)

Avoid wounds with infections and copious drainage, or tracts.

90

What is an advantage of a transparent film that other dressings don’t allow?

Visual evolution of the wound without removal

91

How much of a margin should be left around the wound bed when applying transparents films?

1-2” margin

92

Which dressing is typically very soothing for the patient?

Hydrogel

93

List the dressings from most occlusive (transmit moisture vapor/gases b/t wound bed atmosphere) to Non-occlusive

1. Hydrocolloids
2. Hydrogels
3. Semipermeable foams
4. Semipermeable film
5. Impregnated gauze
6. Alginates
7. Traditional gauze

94

List dressings from most to least moisture retentive

1. Alginates
2. Semipermeable foams
3. Hydrocolliods
4. Hydrogels
5. Semipermeable films