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Flashcards in WWI Deck (11):

Outline the declarations of war

Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum that they could not accept , surprisingly they mainly accepted, but to late - AH declare war 24 July.
Germany, because of their Blank Cheque declared war on Russia August 1 because they had ordered general mobilization on the 30th July.
Russia, who was Serbia's Ally declared war on AH (Russia started mobilizing BEFORE Sebia answered the ultimatum).
Germany, declares war on France because France would not guarantee neutrality, August 3.
England declares war on Germany after G invades Belgium(Schlieffen plan) whom Br supported, August 4.


What was the Blank Cheque?

Germany's promise to Austria-Hungary that they would support AH if they gave Serbia an ultimatum, in the hope war would not happen.
AH thought Germany wanted a war and thus gave them a war by behaving recklessly + giving Serbia the ultimatum.


What was the American policy throughout the start of the 20th century?

Isolationism - you know, isolating themselves


What was the Zimmerman telegram and how was its publication met in the US?

Telegram from German foreign minister Zimmerman to Mexico, promising Mexico California in exchange for helping Germany by fighting the US.


How was WWI a total war?

Resources were directed towards military and civilians worked to support soldiers. Government took control.
Since most major powers had colonies, fighting also took place here.
Massive amount of new technology were used: machine guns, barbed wire, grenades, heavy artillery, tanks, chemical warfare, submarines, airships, bombers.
Civilians were targeted during bombings, fighting took place at the home front.


What were the results of WWI?

9 mil soldiers killed. Millions of civilians died from bombings, famine and disease (20 mil in Spanish Flu).
Cost Britain £34 billion. US lend $2 billion to France and Britain. Uboats sunk many merchant ships. Land, industry and railway had been destroyed. Hospitals and houses needed rebuilding.
Revolution in Germany and Russia. Habsburg empire disintegrated. Ottoman Empire split.
US and Japan benefitted economically from the war.


What were the terms of the Versailles treaty?

War guilt.
Loss of territory - Alsace-Lorraine, Saarland administered by LON in 15 years, Germany split in two by Polish Corridor, Territory given back to Russia, DK, Belgium, Lithuania, Poland.
Colonies handed over to LON -> mandate system.
Coal in Saarland to France.


When and what was the Moroccan crisis?

1905. Germany attacked France in Morocco in an attempt to break the newly created Entente between France and Britain.
Britain (to German surprise) supported France and Germany admitted defeat.
German failure: Blow to Weltpolitik and German pride, only strengthened the Entente, signal end to long period of peace in Europe, Germany seen as key threat to British interests.


Describe the Bosnian crisis.

After the Moroccan crisis, the Anglo-Russian Entente signed 1907- confirming the idea of encirclement and containment of Germany. Forced Germany into closer relationship with Austria-Hungary:
Young Turks revolution in 1908 caused internal crisis in Ottoman Empire. AH anex Bosnia and Herzegovina- outrage in Serbia. Relations between AH and Russia strained and there was talks of war.
Germany supported AH and assured it would mobilize if AH went to war with Serbia. Russia had little support from France and Britain. Russia and Serbia forced to accept AH annexation of Bosnia.

Russia humiliated again - started rearming
Increase in nationalist feeling in Serbia.
Situation in Balkan became more unstable.
Germany opted to encourage AH expansion rather than restrain their aproach to the region.


What was the second Moroccan (Agadir) crisis all about?

May 1911, France sent troops to Fez Morocco on the request of the sultan to suppress a revolt. Germany saw it as the beginning of a French takeover and sent the gunboat Panther to Agadir hoping to get a compensation from France from doing so. The Germans demanded all of French Congo, Britan implied that this 'gunboat diplomacy' was a war threat. A speech by David Lloyd George turned the Franco-German crisis into an Anglo-German confrontation. Crisis ended with Germany receiving two strips of territory in the French Congo.
- Increased tension in Europe
- Strengthened the Entente, resulting in naval negotiations between the Bri and Fra.
- Increased hostility between Germany and Britain.


Describe the first and second Balkan War.

Serbia, Greeca and Montenegro formed a Balkan alliance in 1912 encouraged by Russia. The alliance aimed to force the weakened Turkey from the Balkans by taking Macedonia.
AH could not accept a stronger Serbia and called for war. Russia might however support Serbia causing the war to spread.
The British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, called a peace conference in London -> the former Turkish land was split between the Balkan states and AH got the conference to agree to the creation of Albania, causing more resentment between Serbia and AH.
Disagreement led to another war in July 1913. Bulgaria went to war against Serbia and Greece over Serbian occupied territory. AH Foreign Minister, Count Leopoldo Beechtold was less cautious and asked for German assistance. Ger urged Austrian restraint. Serbia, Greece and Turkey (who joined in the hope of gaining som lost land back) defeated Bulgaria.
- Serbian success encouraged even stronger nationalist feeling.
- Serbia double size, and proven its military through two wars.
- Serbian success encouraged Russian support.
- AH convinced of the need to crush Serbia, AH defeat drew Germany closer.