XVII - Organs of Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XVII - Organs of Special Senses Deck (97):
1

First and most powerful structure of the optical system

cornea

2

Center of vision

fovea

3

Enable the lens to change its shape

zonula

4

Middle vascular layer of the eye

uvea

5

film of the eye

retina

6

Area of the eye without sensory cells

optic disk

7

First part of the brain to receive visual input

optic chiasm

8

Relay station of the visual cortex

lateral geniculate body

9

Keeps images focused on the retina

lens

10

Layer of blood vessel that supplies blood to the retina

choroid

11

Produces aqueous humor

ciliary body

12

Blocked in glaucoma

canal of Schlemm

13

Lens: highly elastic basement membrane covered by a single layer of cuboidal cells, thickest near the equator, thinnest posteriorly

capsule

14

Lens: forms the bulk of the lens, composed of long thin tightly packed cells who lost their nuclei and form fibers

cortex/fiber

15

Cornea: stratified non-keratinizing squamous, 5-6 layers, exposed to air, one of the richest sensory nerve supplies of any eye tissue

epithelium

16

Cornea: composed of collagen fibers, acellular, contributes greatly to the stability and strength of the cornea

Bowman's membrane

17

Cornea: thickest layer, collagen type III and IV, avascular

stroma

18

Cornea: basement membrane

Descemet's membrane

19

Cornea: simple squamous, exposed to aqueous humor, responsible for metabolic exchanges

endothelium

20

Retina: not photosensitive

anterior

21

Retina: photosensitive, optical part

posterior

22

Retina: contains photosensitive cells (rods & cones)

outer layer

23

Retina: contains bipolar neurons

intermediate layer

24

Retina: contains ganglion cells

internal layer

25

Retina: where the retina converges to form the optic nerve

optic disk (optic nerve head, papilla of the optic nerve

26

Retina: blind spot

optic disk

27

Retina: oval-shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina

macula

28

Retina: area of highest visual acuity

fovea

29

Retina: small pit in the center of the macula, contains the highest concentration of cone cells

fovea

30

Retina: separates the retina from the vitreous humor

inner limiting membrane

31

Retina: unmyelinated axons of ganglion cells

optic nerve fibers

32

Retina: site of action potential generation, receptor cells

ganglion cells

33

Retina: synapses between bipolar cells of dendrites of ganglion cells, closer to vitreous

inner plexiform

34

Retina: nuclei of bipolar, amacrine, horizontal and müller cells

inner nuclear

35

Retina: synapses between bipolar cells of dendrites of ganglion cells, farther from vitreous

outer plexiform

36

Retina: nuclei of rods and cones

outer nuclear

37

Retina: separates outer nuclear and photoreceptor layers

outer limiting membrane

38

Retina: contain Na channels

photoreceptors

39

Retina: forms blood-retina barrier, esterifies vitamin A, contains melanin granules, phagocytoses debris

pigment epithelium

40

Photoreceptors: scotopic vision

rods

41

Photoreceptors: very light-sensitive, sensitive to scattered light

rods

42

Photoreceptors: low visual acuity

rods

43

Photoreceptors: loss can cause night blindness

rods

44

Photoreceptors: not present in fovea

rods

45

Photoreceptors: slow response to light

rods

46

Photoreceptors: have more pigment cones

rods

47

Photoreceptors: more numerous (20x)

rods

48

Photoreceptors: one type of photosensitive pigment, rhodopsin

rods

49

Photoreceptors: confer achromatic vision

rods

50

Photoreceptors: photopic vision

cones

51

Photoreceptors: not very light-sensitive, sensitive to direct light

cones

52

Photoreceptors: high visual acuity, better spatial resolution

cones

53

Photoreceptors: loss can cause legal blindness

cones

54

Photoreceptors: concentrated at fovea

cones

55

Photoreceptors: fast resonse to light

cones

56

Photoreceptors: less pigment cones

cones

57

Photoreceptors: 3 types of photosensitive pigments (varieties of iodopsin)

cones

58

Photoreceptors: confer color vision (red, blue, green)

cones

59

Eye: thin transparent mucous membrane, stratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells, lamina propria with loose connective tissue

conjunctiva

60

Eyelids: long sebaceous glands in tarsal plate, do not communicate with hair follicles, creates an oily layer on the surface of the tear film preventing rapid evaporation of tear film

Meibomian glands

61

Eyelids: sweat glands emptying secretions into hair follicles

glands of Moll

62

Eyelids: smaller modified sebaceous glands connected with hair follicles

glands of Zeis

63

Tear-secreting, tubuloalveolar gland rich in lysozyme

lacrimal gland

64

Lacrimal Apparatus: thick stratified squamous epithelium

canaliculi

65

Ear: auricle

pinna

66

External Auditory Meatus: Epithelium

stratified squamous

67

External Auditory Meatus: contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands and ceruminous glands (coiled tubular)

submucosa

68

External Auditory Meatus: outer third

elastic cartilage

69

External Auditory Meatus: inner part

temporal bone

70

Transmits sound waves to the ossicles

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

71

Tympanic Membrane: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

external surface

72

Tympanic Membrane: tough connective tissue (collagen, elastic fibers, fibroblasts), highly vascular

middle layer

73

Tympanic Membrane: simple cuboidal

inner surface

74

Ear: middle

tympanic cavity

75

Tympanic Cavity: Epithelium

simple squamous epithelium which gradually transforms into ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

76

Auditory Ossicles

malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)

77

Auditory Labyrinths: low sodium, high potassium, low protein

endolymph

78

Irregular central cavity housing the saccule and utricle

vestibule

79

Membranous Labyrinths

utricle, saccule

80

Bony Labyrinths

vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea

81

Labyrinths: semicircular canal

kinetic labyrinth

82

Labyrinths: type 1 and 2 hair cells within cristae ampullaris, have stereocilia and single cilium, supporting cells

kinetic labyrinth

83

Labyrinths: cells are covered by a gelatinous mass called cupula, (-) otoliths

kinetic labyrinth

84

Labyrinths: angular acceleration and deceleration

kinetic labyrinth

85

Labyrinths: utricle and saccule

static labyrinth

86

Labyrinths: type 1 and 2 hair cells within maculae, have stereocilia and kinocilia (single cilium), supporting cells

static labyrinth

87

Labyrinths: cells are covered by otolithic membrane with otolits and otoconia

static labyrinth

88

Labyrinths: linear acceleration, gravity

static labyrinth

89

Part of the cochlea of the inner ear, provided with hair cells which are auditory sensory cells (single row of inner hair cells, 3-5 rows of outer hair cells) with stereocilia but no kinocilium

organ of Corti

90

contains as much as 15,000-20,000 auditory nerve receptors, responds to fluid-borne vibrations in the cochlea

organ of Corti

91

Organ of Corti: roof wall

vestibular (Reissner's) membrane

92

Organ of Corti: floor wall

basilar membrane

93

Organ of Corti: lateral wall

stria vascularis

94

Smallest skeletal muscle

stapedius

95

Fluid in the osseus labyrinth

perilymph

96

Fluid in the membranous labyrinth

endolymph

97

The inner ear is a space in which part of bone?

petrous part of temporal bone