VI - Nervous Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in VI - Nervous Tissue Deck (64):
1

Most important histopathologic indicator of CNS injury

gliosis

2

Functional and structural unit of the CNS, classified according to neurites or size

neuron

3

Excitable cells that are specialized for the reception of stimuli and conduction of nerve impulse

neuron

4

Connective tissue of the CNS, non-excitable, structural, protective

glial cells

5

Neurons: 1 axon that divides into a peripheral and a CNS branch, 0 dendrites, posterior root ganglia, cranial nerves

unipolar/pseudounipolar

6

Neurons: 1 axon, 1 dendrite, vestibular, cochlear ganglia, retinal ganglia, olfactory mucosa

bipolar

7

Neurons: 1 axon, ≥ 2 dendrites, most of CNS

multipolar

8

Neurons: no true axon, many dendrites, do not produce action potentials, regulate electrical changes of adjacent neurons

anaxonic

9

Neurons: receive stimuli from receptors

sensory / afferent

10

Neurons: sends impulses to effector organs

motor / efferent

11

Neurons: under voluntary control, innervate skeletal muscle

somatic motor

12

Neurons: involuntary, innervate glands, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

autonomic motor

13

Neurons: establish relationships among other neurons

interneurons

14

Neurons: single long axon, fiber tracts of the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves, motor cells of the spinal cord

golgi type 1 cells

15

Neurons: single short axon, cerebral & cerebellar cortex

golgi type 2 cells

16

Neurons: conduct nerve impulse towards the cell body

dendrites

17

Neurons: contains the cell activities

body

18

Neurons: small conical elevation on the cell body

axon hillock

19

Neurons: conduct impulses away from the cell body

axon

20

Neurons: gaps between myelinated segments exposed to the extracellular milieu of the cell

nodes of Ranvier

21

Neurons: axon terminals, contain neurotransmitter vesicles

synaptic terminals

22

Neurons: materials are transported to the axons from the cell body, kinesin

Anterograde Axonal Transport

23

Neurons: transport of nerve growth factor, HSV, tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, dynein

Retrograde Axonal Transport

24

What cellular structure is particularly increased in neurons

rough endoplasmic reticulum

25

RER in the CNS is in the form of

Nissl substance

26

Composed of stacked RER

Nissl substance

27

Phenomenon in fatigue or neuronal damage in which the Nissl substance moves and becomes concentrated in the periphery

chromatolysis

28

Stain used to localize Nissl substance

Aniline Stain

29

Major inhibitory NT in the spinal cord

glycine

30

Major inhibitory NT in the brain

GABA

31

Major excitatory NT in the CNS

glutamate

32

NT depleted in Parkinson's disease

dopamine

33

NT in excess in Schizophrenia

dopamine

34

NT that plays a role in depression, anxiety and panic attacks

serotonin, norepinephrine

35

NT abundant in the raphe nuclei of the brain

serotonin

36

Maintains CNS hemostasis, protect and surround neurons and hold them in place

neuroglia

37

Provides oxygen and nutrients to neurons, insulates neurons from each other, destroys and removes pathogens in the CNS

neuroglia

38

Neuroglia: structural and metabolic support, BBB, repair processes, white matter

astrocytes (fibrous cell)

39

Neuroglia: structural and metabolic support, BBB, repair processes, gray matter

astrocytes (protoplasmic)

40

Neuroglia: along myelinated nerves and surrounding neuron cell bodies, form myelin in CNS

oligodendrocytes

41

Neuroglia: peripheral nerves, form myelin in PNS

Schwann cells (neurolemmocyte)

42

Neuroglia: scattered throughout CNS, phagocytic action

microglia

43

Neuroglia: peripheral ganglia, structural and metabolic support for neuronal cell bodies

satellite cells

44

Neuroglia: lines the ventricles and central canals, circulation and absorption of CSF

ependyma (ependymyocytes)

45

Neuroglia: lines the floor of the 3rd ventricle, transport CSF to the hypophyseal portal system

ependyma (tanycytes)

46

Neuroglia: line the choroidal plexus, production of CSF

ependyma (choroidal epithelial cells)

47

Supporting framework, project foot processes (perivascular feet) in the capillaries which contribute to the BBB, play a role in the metabolism of NT

astrocytes

48

Buffer the potassium concentration of the CNS form glial scars after injury, undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia after injury, contain Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)

astrocytes

49

Most common primary CNS tumor in children

astrocytoma

50

Largest neuroglial cells

astrocytes

51

Myelinate axons in the PNS

Schwann cells

52

Neuroglia: originate from the mesoderm

microglia

53

Neuroglia: line the ventricular cavities

ependymal cells

54

Neuroglia: have numerous processes with expanded vascular end feet or pedicles which attach to the wall of the capillaries

astrocytes

55

Neuroglia: Part of the mononuclear phagocytic system

microglia

56

Forms glial scars

astrocytes

57

Modified type of ependymal cells in the hypothalamus

tanycytes

58

Neuroglia: participate in BBB

astrocytes

59

Neuroglia: myelinate axons in the CNS

oligodendrocytes

60

Neuroglia: undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy in reaction to CNS injury

astrocytes

61

Neuroglia: ciliated cells which help move CSF through ventricles

ependymal cells

62

Degeneration of oligodendrocytes results in

multiple myeloma

63

Limiting layer of perivascular astrocytic feet, tight junction betweet endothelial cells of capillaries

Blood-Brain Barrier

64

Tight junctions between choroid epithelial cells, endothelial cells of capillaries

Blood-CSF Barrier