XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Patho Flash Cards 2016 > XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) > Flashcards

Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Deck (166)
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91

Morphology: Nuclei are usually round to ovoid, with stippled "salt and pepper" chromatin

Pheochromocytoma. SEE SLIDE 20.17. (TOPNOTCH)

92

Pathogenesis: Dysfunction in T cell selection and regulation leading to breakdown in self-tolerance to islet autoantigens

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108

93

Pathogenesis: Insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and failure of compensation by beta cells

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108

94

Characterized by inflammatory infiltrate of T cells and macrophages, beta cell depletion and islet atrophy

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108

95

Characterized by amyloid deposition in islets and mild beta cell depletion. No insulitis.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108

96

Most potent anabolic hormone with multiple synthetic and growth-promoting effects.

Insulin (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1109

97

The most important environmental risk factor for type 2 diabetes

Obesity(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1111

98

The most common precipitating factor in DKA

Failure to take insulin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1114

99

What explains the wide, staring gaze and lid lag in hyperthyroidism?

Sympathetic overstimulation of superior tarsal muscle(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1084

100

Most common cause of endogenous hyperthyroidism

Graves Disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089

101

Triad of clinical findings in Graves Diseae

Hyperthyroidism, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, and pretibial myxedema (infiltrative dermopathy)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089

102

The most common antibody subtype seen in 90% of patients with Graves disease.

Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin(TSI) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089

103

Patient presents with heat intolerance, palpitations, tibial edema, and exophthalmos. Thyroid gland was noted to be symmetrically enlarged. The most likely diagnosis is:

Graves disease(TOPNOTCH)

104

Effect of iodine in the morphology of thyroid in Graves disease

Involution of epithelium and accumulation of colloid(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089

105

Laboratory features of Graves disease

Elevations in serum free T3 and T4 and decreased serum TSH(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1090

106

Most important single screening test for hyperthyroidism

TSH(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1084

107

Most often cause of congenital hypothyroidism

Iodine deficiency in the diet(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1085

108

Presents with slowing of physical and mental activity, fatigue, apathy, constipation, decreased sweating, shortness of breathing, cold intolerance, overweight.

Myxedema/Hypothyroidism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1086

109

Most sensitive sceening test for hypothyroidism

Serum TSH level(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1085

110

A middle aged-woman presents with painless enlargement of the thyroid that is symmetric and diffuse, with some symptoms of hypothyroidism. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis(TOPNOTCH)

111

It causes symmetric enlargement of the entire thyroid gland without producing nodularity. Patients are usually clinically euthyroid.

Diffuse nontoxic (simple) goiter (TOPNOTCH)

112

Patient presents with mass on the anterior neck and dysphagia. Thyroid is assymetrically enlarged. Thyroid functions tests are normal. Cut section showed irregular nodules containing brown, gelatinous colloid. The microscopic appearance showed colloid-rich follicles lined by flattened, inactive epithelium and areas of follicular hyperplasia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Multinodular goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1091

113

True or False. Nodules in males are more likely to be neoplastic than are those in females.

True(TOPNOTCH)

114

True or False. Solitary nodule are more likely to be neoplastic than are multiple nodules.

True(TOPNOTCH)

115

True or False. Nodules in younger patients are more likely to be neoplastic than are those in older patients.

True(TOPNOTCH)

116

True or False. Functional nodules that take up radioactive iodine in imaging studies (hot nodules) are much more likely to be benign than malignant.

True(TOPNOTCH)

117

What is the most common benign neoplasm of the thyroid?

Follicular adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1100

118

Patient presents with enlarged feet and hands, thickened and sausage-like fingers, jaw protrusion and broadening of the lower face, generalized muscle weakenss. The diagnosis of this condition relies on what elevated serum ___ and ___ levels.

GF and IGF-1 (TOPNOTCH)

119

Development of large destructive pituitary adenoma after surgical removal of the adrenal gland. This condition occurs most often because of the inhibitory effect of adrenal corticosteroids.

Nelson syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1080

120

Presents with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, loss of libido and infertility.

Lactotroph adenoma(TOPNOTCH)