Zoology Final d Flashcards Preview

Zoology > Zoology Final d > Flashcards

Flashcards in Zoology Final d Deck (47):
1

common mammal characteristics

- mammary glands
- sweat glands
- hair
- 3 middle ear bones
- neocortex in the brain
- diaphragm

2

skin

- hair follicles located in dermis of skin
- as new cells are produced they are carried away from their source of nourishment and die, turning into keratin

3

two kinds of hair

- underhair
- guard hair

4

underhair

- for insulation
- so dense in aquatic mammals that i keeps them from getting wet

5

guard hair

for protection and coloration

6

skin glands

- sebaceous glands that produce sebum
- scent glands used for communication; located on head, penis, anal region, back of head, legs, armpits

7

two types of sweat glands

- eccrine glands
- apocrine glands

8

eccrine glands

for evaporative cooling

9

apocrine glands

- associated with reproductive cycle
- types: mammary gland

10

mammary gland

occur on all female mammals and in rudimentary form on males

11

horns and antlers

- horns have core of bone and are permanent
- antlers develo in spring beneath velvet and are shed each year

12

What animal has been pushed to brink of extinction by demand for its horns?

white rhinoceros from Asia Africa

13

teeth

- sets mammals apart and reveals life habits
- mammals have heterodont (different) dentition, where reptiles have homodont (same) dentition

14

dentition

teeth

15

animals with homodont dentition

american crocodile

16

animals with heterodont dentition

fox
tiger

17

what are different types of teeth in mammals

- incisors
- canines
- premolars
- molars

18

incisors

used to nip, seize food

19

canines

used to kill, stab prey

20

premolars

used for slicing and crushing

21

molars

used for crushing

22

diphyodont dentition

having two sets of teeth:
- temporary set (baby teeth)
- permanent set

23

deciduous teeth are what?

- baby teeth
- milk teeth

24

different feeding types in mammals

- insectivores
- carnivores
- omnivores
- herbivores
- variations have occurred such as filter feeding in whales

25

characteristics of insectivores

- short intestine, no cecum
- little fibrous vegetable matter that requires prolonged fermentation

26

characteristics of nonruminant herbivores

- elephants, rodents, horses rabbits
- cecum serves as fermentation chamber harboring microorganisms that can break chemical bonds of cellulose
- simple stomach, large cecum

27

characteristics of ruminant herbivores

- cattle, bison, goats, antelopes
- four-chambered stomach with large rumen
- cud formed in rumen returned to mouth for chewing, then back to rumen
- relatively long intestines

28

rumen

chamber to help in digesting cellulose

29

what are the three different types of herbivores?

- nonruminant herbivores
- ruminant herbivores
- herbivores that exhibit coprophagy

30

herbivores that exhibit coprophagy

- hares, rabbits, some rodents
- eat own feces to give food second pass through cecum

31

characteristics of carnivores

- short intestine and colon, small cecum
- no need to feed continuously as herbivores do
- get enough our of what we they do eat

32

characteristics of omnivores

- small or no cecum
- relatively long intestine

33

respiration in mammal

possess diaphragm for creating negative pressure to suck air into lungs

34

pinnae

- adaptation of head
- external ears
- used to catch sound, thermoregulation

35

ears in mammals

- more complex inner ear
- 3 middle ear bones: malleus, incus and stapes

36

hearing in mammals

- very well-developed especially in bats
- echolocation enables bats to navigate in total darkness
- toothed whale and dolphins use echolocation too

37

earliest synapsids reptiles

- pelycosaurs
- neural spines of vertebrae supported large sail-like structure, possibly for thermoregulation
- teeth show beginnings of heterdont dentition

38

synapsids

refers to shape of skull, holes in head for attachment of jaw muscles

39

After synapsids, came therapsids....

had efficient erect gait with upright limbs positioned beneath the body

40

after therapsids, came cynodants....

- high metabolic rate
- increased jaw musculature
- mammal-like, heterodont dentition

41

skull characteristics

secondary cony palate enabling animal to suckle and breathe at same time, also to eat and breathe at same time
- separates nasal cavity from oral cavity

42

what is the most primitive group of mammals?

- prototherians
- internal fertilization, egg-laying mammals
- duck-billed platypus and spiny anteater
- other names: echidna and monotherians

43

what is the second major group of mammals?

- metatherians
- young nourished via primitive placenta in a pouch called marsupium

44

types of marsupials

- kangaroo
- koala
- tasmanian devil
- wombat
- opossum

45

what is the most advanced major group of mammals?

- eutherians
- true placental mammals

46

types of eutherians

- dolphins
- humans
- cows

47

endangered mammals

reasons for endangerment:
- habitat loss
- poaching
- pesticides and other toxins
- global warming