Zoology Test 3e Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Zoology Test 3e Deck (14):
1

how do chimeras differ from sharks, skates and rays?

- only descendants from very ancient lineage
- jaws bear large flat plates instead of teeth
- feed on seaweed, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans and fish
- upper jaw fused to cranium
- beautifully colored with pearly iridescence and glowing green eyes

2

Actinopterygii

- bony fish- ray finned
- perch, bass, sturgeon, trout
- did not evolve from cartilaginous fish

3

different types of Actinopterygii

- hawk fish
- tiple fin
- flying fish
- butterfly fish
- box fish
- porcupine fish
- leafy sea dragon
- razorfish
- crocodile fish
- demon stinger
- bichir
- paddle fish

4

bone in bony fish

- made from endochondral bone (cone that replaces cartilage)
- bone is stronger than cartilage, and is necessary to support weight of large land animals

5

adaptation of respiration in bony fish

- operculum covers gill openings contributes to respiratory efficiency
- when muscles more operculum, negative pressure is created that pulls water over gills
- operculum also prevents back flow

6

second adaptation of respiration in bony fish

- countercurrent blood flow (blood flows in opposite direction from water flow across gill filaments)
- increases efficiency of respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon monoxide

7

buoyancy in bony fish

- swim bladders
- originally an extension of pharynx that served as primitive "lung"
- "lung" retained as swim bladder

8

osmoregulation in freshwater bony fish

- their more primitive kidneys secrete a very dilute urine
- salt absorbing cells absorb salt from water into blood

9

osmoregulation in marine bony fish

- drink seawater to avoid dehydration
- salt-secreting cells in gills get rid of excess salt
- some salt voided with feces
- some secreted by kidney

10

how fast can bony fish swim?

- water is a very difficult medium to move through
- complex arrangements of myomeres

11

reproduction in fish

- most have external fertilization and lay eggs (oviparity)
- have eggs that hatch inside the body (ovoviviparity
- give birth to sully-formed young (viviparity) (only sharks, and no bony fish)

12

characteristics of Pacific Salmon

- they are anadromous adults feed in ocean for 3-4 years before returning to same stream for spawning, after which they die
- guided by characteristic odor of parent stream
- also magnetism

13

characteristics of freshwater eel

- they are catadromous meaning that they spend most of their lives in fresh water but migrate to sea to spawn in sea
- larval eels take up to 3 years to migrate back to freshwater streams

14

Sarcopterygii

- bony fish: lobe finned
- coelacanth
- lungfish
- fleshy, lobed fins
- fin is on fleshy, scaly stalk extending from body
- arranged in similar pattern to tetrapods allows motion at joints