Zoology Test 1c Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Zoology Test 1c Deck (44):
1

Porifera reproduction

- sexual reproduction
- broadcast fertilization
- species take in sperm from exterior and fertilize internally, larva hatched internally
- some species broadcast both sperm and oocytes

2

broadcast fertilization

throw it out there, need a phase to be synchronized

3

blastula

stage after fertilization that contains flagella on the inside which turns itself inside out

4

what is the motile stage of porifera reproduction?

parenchymula larva

5

How do sponges differ from protozoa?

- cell specialization in form and function
- coordination of different cell types
- begin to hint at tissues

6

How are sponges similar to protozoa?

- sexual and asexual reproduction
- intracellular digestion
- no organs or true tissues

7

common characteristics of Cnidaria

- radial symmetry
- invented movement
- germ-layers
- do have tissues
- have mouth
- have digestive cavity - extracellular digestion
- mostly marine

8

significance of Cnidarians

- contains most primitiver members on main line of eumetazoan evolution
- fossils up to 700 million years old

9

cnidarian symmetry

- have two ends
- oral end which is the mouth
- aboral end which is the opposite side of mouth

10

nematocysts

- mechanism used in cnidarians
- located in the cnidocytes
- sting and paralyze prey
- entangle prey
- triggered by contact

11

cnidocytes

specialized cell

12

nervous tissue of cnidarians

- true tissues include nerve net
- bidirectional nerve cells
- radial symmetry means no CNS
- nerve cells connect to muscular cells forming coordinated neuromuscular system

13

cnidarian body plan

- basic structure: digestive sac with one opening, two-way digestive system
- diploblastic
- two distinct layers: epidermis and gastrodermis
- gastrovascular cavity
- two forms: polyp and medusa

14

diploblastic

when blastula, has two layers of tissue

15

epidermis

outer tissue layer

16

gastrodermis

inner tissue layer

17

mesoglea

jelly-like layer inbetween the epidermis and gastrodermis

18

gastrovascular cavity

for digestion and circulation of nutrients, waste and gases

19

alternation of generations

type of pattern where the two forms of cnidarians perform different kinds of reproduction

20

polyp has what kind of reproduction

asexual

21

medusa has what kind of reproduction

sexual

22

what are the tissue layers of the embryonic cell?

- endoderm: inside
- ectoderm: outside
- mesoglea in the middle

23

What are the four classes of cnidarians?

- hydrozoa
- scyphozoa
- cubozoa
- anthozoa

24

hydrozoa

- hydra
- obelia
- physalia

25

scyphozoa

aurelia

26

cubozoa

box jellyfish

27

anthozoa

- sea anemone
- coral

28

characteristics of hydra

- freshwater
- polyp form
- both sexual and asexual budding
- dioecious

29

cell types in the hydra

- interstitial cells
- epitheliomuscular cells
- cindocytes
- sensory cells

30

interstitial cells

the stem cells of hydra

31

epitheliomuscular cells

shorten body, longitudinal muscles for body movement

32

cindocytes

capture prey and defend

33

sensory cells

sense chemical and tactile stimuli

34

What are the gastrodermis cell types?

- nutritive-muscular cells
- gland cells

35

nutritive-muscular cells

extend body and phagocytize food for intracellular digestion

36

gland cells

secrete enzymes to digest food in gastrovascular cavity for extracellular digestion

37

characteristics of physalia

- Portuguese man-o-war
- marine
- floating
- colonial
- prime example of polymorphism, contain both medusae and polyp in same colony

38

characteristics of obelia

- marine sessile
- colonial
- hydranths
- gonangia

39

hydranths

used for feeding in obelia

40

gonangia

produce medusa buds via asexual reproduction in obelia

41

planula larvae

stage that comes after the blastula in a obelia, fertilization to zygote to blastula to planula larvae

42

characteristics of scyphozoa

- true jellyfish
- example: aurelia
polyp stage is solitary, not colonial

43

sexual reproduction in scyphozoa

- male/female medusa produce gamete
- male releases sperm, female takes sperm in gastrovascular cavity to ovaries
- after fertilization, zygote develops into planula
- planula settles on substrate to become scyphistoma polyp

44

asexual reproduction in scyphozoa

- scyphistoma goes through strobilation to produce strobila stage of life cycle
- strobila buds to release multiple clones which called ephyra
- ephyra develop into male and female medusae