Zoology Test 3a Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Zoology Test 3a Deck (65):
1

Subphylums of Arthropoda

- Trilobita
- Chilicerta
- Crustacea
- Myriapoda
- Hexapoda

2

classes of Chilicerta

- Merastomata
- Arachnida

3

types of Merastomata

horseshoe crabs

4

types of Arachnida

- spiders
- ticks
- mites
- scorpions

5

ticks and mites are from what order?

Acari

6

types of Crustacea

- crabs
- lobsters
- crayfish
- krill
-copepod
- decapods
- isopods
- barnacles

7

classes of Myriapoda

- Chilopoda
- Diplopoda

8

what is a Chilopoda

centipede

9

what is a Diplopoda

millipede

10

classes of Hexapoda

- Insecta

11

what does arthropoda mean

jointed foot because of appendages

12

arthropod diversity

- largest phylum by far
- 75% of known animal species
- over a million recognized species

13

What are arthropods so successful?

- versatile exoskeleton
- segmentation and appendages for more efficient locomotion
- air piped directly to cells
- highly-developed sensory organs
- complex behavioral patterns
- limiting intraspecific competition through metamorphosis

14

versatile exoskeleton

- suit of armor (cuticle) with flexible joints, secreted by epidermis
- primarily chitin
- cuticle is flexible and lightweight but also affords protection, particularly against dehydration
-cuticle of crustaceans is impregnanted with calcium salts, unlike cuticle of other arthropods which makes it harder

15

chitin

tough, resistant, nitrogenous polysaccharide that is insoluble in water, alkalis and weak acid

16

disadvantages of exoskeleton

- must be molted since it not alive and does not grow
- 4 to 7 times for those that stop molting at adulthood

17

molting

takes energy and leaves organism vulnerable, shedding of exoskeleton
- takes 24 to 48 hours for exoskeleton to reharden

18

segmentation and appendages for more efficient locomotion

- there is considerable fusion and reduction of segments especially in the adult stages of life cycle
- some segments are extensively modified for sensory functions, food handling, swift and efficient walking, and swimming
- crayfish
- jointed appendages, jointed parts consist of hollow lever moved by internal muscles>>gives them great strength

19

air piped directly to cells

- terrestrial arthropods have highly efficient tracheal system which delivers oxygen directly to tissues and cells and makes high metabolic rate possible
- disadvantage: limits body size, because it is difficult to get air to every part of large body

20

respiration in arthropods

- efficient gills
- attached to bases of walking legs in some crayfish

21

highly-developed sensory organs

- arthropods are keenly alert to what is happening in environment

22

example of complex organ system in crustaceans and insects

compound eye

23

example of complex organ system in grasshopper tympanum

- enables grasshoppers to hear sound
- arthropods were first group to communicate via sound
- aware of sound waves and vibrations

24

example of complex organ system in silkworm moth

- antennae enables males to located females by sensing presence of pheromones
- female releases pheromone downwind and male follows concentration gradient to find her for mating

25

complex behavioral patterns

highly organized behavior in social insects

26

limiting intraspecific competition through metamorphosis

- many arthropods undergo metamorphosis meaning larva and adult are not competing with each other since feed on different foods
- two kinds of metamorphosis

27

holometabolous

- type of metamorphosis
- complete metamorphosis
- butterfly

28

hemimetabolous

- type of metamorphosis
- incomplete metamorphosis
- beetle
- gradual change

29

arthropod nervous system

- basic layout similar to that of annelids
- single ventral nerve cord and dorsally-located cerebral ganglia with circumesophageal connectives
- complexity of nervous system considerably advanced over annelids

30

osmoregulation and excretion in crustaceans

have gills through which nitrogenous wastes are lost via diffusion and antennal glands for osmoregulation

31

osmoregulation and excretion in terrestrial arthropods

have malpighian tubules for osmoregulation and excretion
- this is why they can live in hot, dry climates; very efficient

32

circulation in aquatic forms

an open circulatory system with heart and arteries
- no veins
- no separation of blood from interstitial fluid
- hole in heart called ostia which allows blood to seep back into heart

33

circulation in terrestrial forms

- single dorsal vessel is only blood vessel
- dorsal vessel pumps hemolymph conisitng of plasma and amebocytes
- has little to do with oxygen transport since trachea leads oxygen straight to cell

34

mouthparts found among insects

-biting or chewing (grasshopper)
- sucking, piercing (mosquito)
- sponging and lapping (horse fly)
- some insects combine these

35

evolutionary relationship between annelids and arthropods

- shared derived characters once gave strong support to hypothesis that they are closely related
- recent molecular evidence doesn't support idea
- further research is necessary to clarify evolutionary relationships of annelids and arthropods

36

characteristics of Merostomata

- possess chelicerae: first pair of head appendages
- horseshoe crabs, chelicerae similar to walking legs in appearance; similarity of appendages

37

characteristics of Arachnida

- chelicera modified in this group
- used to kill prey and pierce food source
- possess poison fangs in spiders
- pedipalps
- sexual dimorphism
- two body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen which results from fusion of head and thorax, and fusion of abdominal segments

38

pedipalps

paired head appendages used as legs, pincers or feelers; have chewing parts at base

39

spider webs

- silk glands make liquid, which are then emitted as liquid by spinnerets
- hardens to stronger than steel threads of same diameter
- used to catch and wrap prey, line nests, egg sacs and many other used

40

spider love...

- male spins small web and deposits sperm which is then sucked into modified pedipalps
- male courts female with ritualized movements and inserts pedipalp into genital opening of female
- male gets out of way fast before he is eaten

41

sexual dimorphism

- physical differences between male and female
- males have specialized pedipalps used for sperm transfer
- males are relatively smaller than females, sometimes much smaller

42

arachnid abundance

- as many as 2 million per acre
- very important the major natural control of insect pests

43

spiders to watch for

- black widow
- brown recluse

44

black widow

- has red hourglass on underside of abdomen
- have neurotoxin which attacks nervous system

45

brown recluse

- has violin shaped marking on dorsal surface of cephalothorax
- are necrotic which means they eat the skin

46

scorpions

- short cephalothorax, pre abdomen and post abdomen of 5 segments which ends in stinging telson
- small chelicerae and enlarged pincer-like pedipalps
- have elaborate mating dance
- females carry young
- most aren't harmful

47

characteristics of Acari

- type of Arachnida
- ticks and mites
- as many as 1 million species, incredibly numerous around world
- many parasitic during one or more stages of life cycle
- some very serious agricultural pests belong to group
- complete fusion of cephalothorax and abdomen with no sign of external metamerism
- most have four pair of legs like other arachnids

48

deer ticks

- cause lyme disease
- small size (pinhead), orange color
- chronic and disabling with arthritis symptoms
- most ppl get bitten recover spontaneously or don't get disease
- vaccinate dog for lumes
- cause bullseye rash

49

what member of order acari cause serious damage to agricultural crops including fruit trees, cotton, clover and other plants?

spider mites

50

other mite conditions

- chiggers are mite larvae that cause dermatitis and transmit disease
- most species of mites are entirely free-living, such as dust mites

51

body plan of chilopoda

- centipedes have similar segments, with one pair of legs per segment, with first pair modified into maxillipeds with poison fangs
- segments flattened
- fast-moving predators

52

body plan of diplopoda

- head bears pair of antennae, mandibles and maxillae
- two pairs of short legs per segment, slow moving
- herbivores which prefer dark, moist places
- protect themselves by curling up and secreting toxic fluids from glands

53

types of Crustacea

- crabs
- lobsters
- crayfish
- krill
- copepod
- decapods
- isopods
- branacles

54

how ecologically important are crustaceans....

most abundant animals in world are probably copepods of genus Calanus
- present in many ecosystems

55

characteristics of krill

foundation of food web that includes great whales and many other marine creatures

56

body plan of crustacean

- are only arthropods with two pairs of antennae
- cephalothorax and segmented abdomen
- one pair of appendages per segment, but highly modified to serve different functions

57

digestion in crustacean

- crushing mandibles to esophagus to cardiac stomach (with gastric mill) to pyloric stomach to intestine

58

development in crustacean

- indirect development with true larval stage
- most primitive and widely occurring larvae among crustaceans is nauplius

59

decapods

- include: crabs, lobsters and crayfish
- 18,000 species
- three pairs of maxillipeds
- five pairs of walking legs
- contain major pincers (chelae)

60

diversity of decapods

- very diverse, range in size from few mm to 12 ft
- very important to marine ecosystem, many ppl relish them as food
- camouflage using materials from surroundings

61

characteristics of isopods

- pill bugs
- lack cuticle that prevents dehydration, so must live in moist locations

62

characteristics of barnacles

- sessile
- monoecious
- filter feeders
- attach to just about anything
- have jointed appendages

63

body plan of Hexapoda

- contain head, thorax and abdomen
- three pairs of legs
- some have wings

64

characteristics of Hexapoda

- all feeding types: herbivores, predators, parasites and detritivores
- live in all terrestrial and freshwater habitats
- important to humans
- they are dominant terrestrial animals in terms of adaptive radiation and ecological success
- 1.1 million species
- for every one human: 200,000,000 insects

65

insect flight

- primitive insects have direct flight muscles where each wing stroke is initiated by nervous impulse- this is called synchronous
- indirect flight muscles are caused by asynchronous nervous control where many wing strokes are initiated by one nervous impulse; makes possible vary rapid wing beats
- make a figure eight pattern in air to generate forward thrust