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Flashcards in Zoology Test 3a Deck (65)
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1

Subphylums of Arthropoda

- Trilobita
- Chilicerta
- Crustacea
- Myriapoda
- Hexapoda

2

classes of Chilicerta

- Merastomata
- Arachnida

3

types of Merastomata

horseshoe crabs

4

types of Arachnida

- spiders
- ticks
- mites
- scorpions

5

ticks and mites are from what order?

Acari

6

types of Crustacea

- crabs
- lobsters
- crayfish
- krill
-copepod
- decapods
- isopods
- barnacles

7

classes of Myriapoda

- Chilopoda
- Diplopoda

8

what is a Chilopoda

centipede

9

what is a Diplopoda

millipede

10

classes of Hexapoda

- Insecta

11

what does arthropoda mean

jointed foot because of appendages

12

arthropod diversity

- largest phylum by far
- 75% of known animal species
- over a million recognized species

13

What are arthropods so successful?

- versatile exoskeleton
- segmentation and appendages for more efficient locomotion
- air piped directly to cells
- highly-developed sensory organs
- complex behavioral patterns
- limiting intraspecific competition through metamorphosis

14

versatile exoskeleton

- suit of armor (cuticle) with flexible joints, secreted by epidermis
- primarily chitin
- cuticle is flexible and lightweight but also affords protection, particularly against dehydration
-cuticle of crustaceans is impregnanted with calcium salts, unlike cuticle of other arthropods which makes it harder

15

chitin

tough, resistant, nitrogenous polysaccharide that is insoluble in water, alkalis and weak acid

16

disadvantages of exoskeleton

- must be molted since it not alive and does not grow
- 4 to 7 times for those that stop molting at adulthood

17

molting

takes energy and leaves organism vulnerable, shedding of exoskeleton
- takes 24 to 48 hours for exoskeleton to reharden

18

segmentation and appendages for more efficient locomotion

- there is considerable fusion and reduction of segments especially in the adult stages of life cycle
- some segments are extensively modified for sensory functions, food handling, swift and efficient walking, and swimming
- crayfish
- jointed appendages, jointed parts consist of hollow lever moved by internal muscles>>gives them great strength

19

air piped directly to cells

- terrestrial arthropods have highly efficient tracheal system which delivers oxygen directly to tissues and cells and makes high metabolic rate possible
- disadvantage: limits body size, because it is difficult to get air to every part of large body

20

respiration in arthropods

- efficient gills
- attached to bases of walking legs in some crayfish

21

highly-developed sensory organs

- arthropods are keenly alert to what is happening in environment

22

example of complex organ system in crustaceans and insects

compound eye

23

example of complex organ system in grasshopper tympanum

- enables grasshoppers to hear sound
- arthropods were first group to communicate via sound
- aware of sound waves and vibrations

24

example of complex organ system in silkworm moth

- antennae enables males to located females by sensing presence of pheromones
- female releases pheromone downwind and male follows concentration gradient to find her for mating

25

complex behavioral patterns

highly organized behavior in social insects

26

limiting intraspecific competition through metamorphosis

- many arthropods undergo metamorphosis meaning larva and adult are not competing with each other since feed on different foods
- two kinds of metamorphosis

27

holometabolous

- type of metamorphosis
- complete metamorphosis
- butterfly

28

hemimetabolous

- type of metamorphosis
- incomplete metamorphosis
- beetle
- gradual change

29

arthropod nervous system

- basic layout similar to that of annelids
- single ventral nerve cord and dorsally-located cerebral ganglia with circumesophageal connectives
- complexity of nervous system considerably advanced over annelids

30

osmoregulation and excretion in crustaceans

have gills through which nitrogenous wastes are lost via diffusion and antennal glands for osmoregulation