Flashcards in Zoonotic Viral Diseases I/II Deck (56)
This deck will cover all the new zoonotic viruses that weren't already covered in another deck.
Let's start with rabies. Describe the structure
-ssRNA, enveloped, bullet-shaped, helical nuclear capsid
Who carries rabies around?
Describe the pathophys of rabies virus?
Virus contains glycoprotein which binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on postsynaptic membrane of NMJ.
Virus travels retrograde via peripheral nerves to dorsal root ganglia; affects pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells
What sx will you get with rabies?
salivation, dysphagia (spasms in muscles of larynx/throat), muscle spasms, fever, acute encephalitis, uniformly fatal (untreated) with incubation of weeks/ months`
Dx of rabies???
dFA of brain (direct fluorescence antibody stain).
What will you see on Histo for rabies?
Negri bodies=eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (in pyramidal cells of hippocampus and purkinje cells)
What do you do when you get bit by a bat and you're like OMG I'M GONNA GET THE RABIES WHATDOIDOWHATDOITDOWHATDOIDO
after bite in someone who was never vaccinated→ post-exposure anti-rabies vaccine and passive antibody (HRIG)
What is the structure of Coronavirus?
+ssRNA, helical capsule
What are the sx of Coronavirus?
1. acute bronchitis that leads to ARDS, 2. common cold
Source of coronavirus
bats and other animals (civet) in Asian game market
What is MERS-CoV?
MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Likely from camels, carried by bats
How do you dx coronavirus?
antibodies to SAR confirmed with PCR
Tx for coronavirus?
1. broad spectrum antibiotics
Where will you get Hendra virus?
flying fox bat, horses in Australia
Where will you get Nipah virus?
Bat, pigs in Malaysia
What kind of viruses are Hendra and Nipah virus?
What can Nipah/Hendra virus cause?
Multisystemic vasculitis→ thrombosis, ischemia, and necrosis. Can lead to disease of brain (acute encephalitis), lung (pneumonitis) and spleen.
Structure of Hantavirus? Genome?
Genome contains 3 RNA segments: L, M, S
How is Hantavirus transmitted?
Inhalation of infected rodent excrement or direct contact through skin
What does Hantavirus cause?
HFRS (hemorrhagic fever w/ renal syndrome) aka hantavirus disease =fever, HA, hemorrhage, acute renal failure.
What can Sin Nombre virus cause?
HA, back/abd pain, fever, chills, nausea, blurred vision, HFRS, HPS (Hanta pulmonary syndrome**this syndrome is mostly caused by Sin Nombre virus, despite the name)
How is Sin Nombre virus transmitted?
Inhalation exposure in the Four Corners region of US
Tx for Sin Nombre?
What kind of virus is Sin Nombre virus?
Strucutre of Flavivirus?
+ssRNA, enveloped, non-segmented
Tell me some things about Japanese encephalitis (Caused by flavivirus)
1. transmission involves culex mosquitoes, birds and pigs
2. Dx: serology
3. Tx: NONE WAH
Are most infections by Japanese encephalitis super duper bad like you're gonna die today kind of bad?
No. No, it's actually usually subclinical. Relax, kid.
There are two kinds of Yellow Fever (caused by flavivirus). Tell me about them.
1. Jungle form: natural reservoir of dz, cycle in non-human primates and forest mosquitoes. Humans incidentally infected when in jungle.
2. Urban form: transmitted between humans by Aedes aegypti mosquito.