Other Zoonotic Bact. I/II Flashcards Preview

Final Multisystems Microbiology > Other Zoonotic Bact. I/II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other Zoonotic Bact. I/II Deck (52)
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1

Shape of Leptospira?

small, thin, spiral shaped (question mark shaped)

2

Where do we find Leptospira and where does it go in the body?

endemic in tropical regions (Hawaii); associated with water sports/ swimming
travels through blood and infects various organs esp. kidney (high CK/ azotemia) and liver

3

Discuss the lab findings of Leptospira

Lab: Can be grown aerobically in appropriate media

4

Symptoms of Leptospira

Sx: Acute febrile illness with conjunctival suffusion (reddening with no pus) that may progress to jaundice and renal failure (Weil’s disease), pulmonary hemorrhage or meningitis.

5

Who are at risk for Leptospira

At risk: animal urine--> contaminated water→ Soldiers wading in water/streams during field exercises

6

Source of Lyme Disease? Discuss the life cycle of this thing,

Source: hard ticks (ixodes scapularis family) type: Deer ticks

Life cycle: White footed mouse= reservoir for larvae; white tailed deer = obligatory host for adult form (deer immune)

7

Who is at risk for Lyme Disease?

Risk: NE and midwest USA-- Most common arthropod-borne infection in the U.S.

Nymph stage of the tick in the months of May - July is the most contagious.

8

How do we diagnose Lyme Disease

Dx: blood culture and PCR (Synovial fluid if they have arthritis), ELISA/western blot, Wright stain, Giemsa stain

9

Discuss the symptoms of Lyme Disease

Stage 1: 2-7 days: (localized infection) bull’s eye rash (w/in a month of bite), flu sx (fever+chills)
(Local spread) erythema migrans

Stage 2: weeks to months later:(disseminated infection) bilateral bell’s palsy, heart block caused by myocarditis, erythema migrans in other locations

Stage 3: months to years: (persistent infection) lyme encephalopathy (memory problems, meningitis or other CNS sx), migratory polyarthritis starting w/ large joints (like knee), acrodermatitis
FACE: facial nerve palsy, arthritis, cardiac block, erythema migrans

10

Lyme's Disease is similar to STARI. What is STARI all about?

**similar to: STARI - Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness - lyme-disease like rash seen in people residing in southeastern and south-central US; cause =the lone-star tick (Amblyomma americanum), but bacterial agent is unknown

11

Treatment of Lyme Disease

Tx: Doxycycline (stage 1), Ceftriaxone (stage 3)

12

Discuss the symptoms of Relapsing fevers

Sx: Relapsing fever - recurrent episodes of fever x3-5 days (+HA, myalgia, vomiting) separated by asymptomatic intervals.

incubation period ~6 days

initially: sudden chills, high fever, tachycardia, delirium, red macular rash on trunk and extremities (erythema multiforme)

relapse:fever, arthralgia, jaundice

can lead to: hepatosplenomegaly, myocarditis, heart failure

13

Louse born vs. Tick born relapsing fever

Louse(lice)-borne (Borrelia recurrentis)= transmitted from person to person with no animal reservoir (louse/lice is crushed on host and leaks Borrelia) = epidemic form

Tick-borne (Borrelia hermsii)= transmitted from animals to humans by soft ticks (Ornithodoros hermsi)= endemic form.

14

Who is at risk for Louse born vs. Tick born?

Louse: Risk:mountains in Africa/S. Ameria. war areas and refugee camps

Tick: Risk: western US in summer. Sleeping in rodent-infested cabins in the mountains

15

Treatment of Relapsing fever

Tx: doxy/ tetracycline or erythromycin

16

Discuss the lab and structure for Rickettsia

G(-) coccobacillus bacteria (ovoid shaped)

gram stains poorly (but can use Giemsa stain)

obligate intracellular (get NAD+ and CoA from eukaryotic cells for bacterial replication),

nonmotile (spread from cell to cell w/ actin polymerization), nonspore-forming

17

Discuss the symptoms of Ricketssia rickettsii

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

sx: spotted fever, n/v, red eyes, rash (small, flat pink macules on extremities)

later sx: rash becomes darker small spots and moves centrally

can lead to: renal failure, myalgia, skin necrosis, pneumonia, brain infarct, death

18

Pathogenesis of Ricketssia Rickettsii

patho: invades endothelial cells and induces cells to phagocytose more bacteria

19

Labs for RMSF (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever)

labs: IgG or IgM antibodies on IF, PCR detects rickettiae DNA

20

Treatment for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

tx: doxycycline (side effect in children: teeth staining)

21

Talk about Rickettsialpox

Source: rodents → mites → humans
Sx:Rickettsialpox Rash like chicken pox (papulovesicular). Eschar at bite site
Seen in US

22

Discuss Rickettsia prowazeki

Source: body louse vector to squirrel reservoir
Sx: epidemic typhus
Not seen in US (seen in Somalia)

23

Discuss Rickettsia Typhi

Source: flea-borne vectors, rodent reservoir
Sx: endemic or murine typhus
Seen in the US and worldwide

24

Talk about Orienta Rickettsia

Source: mites, chiggers
Sx: scrub typhus
Not in US, in Vietnam

25

Talk about Anaplasmataceae:

G(-) small bacteria , intracellular (in cytoplasmic vacuoles of hematopoietic cells)
histo: morulae- basophilic and intracytoplasmic inclusions

26

What type of bacteria are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and where do they hide

G(-) small bacteria , intracellular (in granulocytes/neutrophils)

27

Discuss the source and transmission for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Source: hard ticks (ixodes scapularis family) type: Deer ticks

cattle/sheep → ticks → humans

28

Discuss the symptoms for Anaplasma phagocytophilum

sx: similar to RMSF, but more abrupt fever, chills, HA, malaise,hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

29

Discuss the risk for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum and what it is associated with

risk: NE and mid-atlantic US

a/w: coinfection with lyme disease and babesiosis

30

Discuss the structure of Coxiella and the transmission of it

G(-) obligate intracellular (in phagolysosomes)

source: cattle/sheep → ticks → humans

spores spread through animal droppings: Spread to humans via aerosol transmission; often in farmers, veterinarians