When Animals Bite Flashcards Preview

Final Multisystems Microbiology > When Animals Bite > Flashcards

Flashcards in When Animals Bite Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Who is most likely to get bit by a dog?

9 year old boy

2

Who is most likely to get bit by a cat?

75 year of women

3

Dog bites

-60% of animal bites
-mostly young boys
-Inc in sexually intact male gods
- Inc in purebred status
-More often hand and face attacked

4

Type of dog that is #1 cause of human death?

Pit bull breed: Staffordshire terrier

5

Cat bites

1. Less destructive/life threatening
2. Deeper puncture wounds (may cause osteomyletis)
3. Inc risk of infection/soft tissue abscess (Rapid progression to infection)
4. More often upper extremities

6

Most common pathogens in Dog/care bite wound infections

1. Pasturella (cat>dogs)
2. Capnocytophagia canimorsus (dog>cat)
3. Anaerobes: Bacteroides, Fusobacteria, Porphyromonas, Prevotella
4. Skin flora: Staphylococci, Streptococci

7

Tell me about Pasturella structure?

Gm (-) bacilli, facultative anaerobe, catalase (+), oxidase (+)

8

What does it look like when stained? What do you grow it on?

Growth on 5% sheep’s blood agar.
Shows bipolar staining (safety pin like yersinia!)

9

Where do we get Pasturella from (soft ball)

Source: respiratory tract of cats and dogs. Transmission: BITES

10

Sx of Pasturella infection

soft tissue infections (cellulitis) w/in 24 hours of bite.
May develop into necrotizing fasciitis or osteomyelitis. Systemic spread (pneumonia, endocarditis, meningitis) and lymphadenopathy esp in those with COPD or liver dz.

11

Tx for Pasturella infections?

PCN + beta lactamase inhibitor (amoxicillin + clavulanate)

12

Tell me about Capnocytophaga canimorsus structure?

Gm(-) rod

13

Where do we find Capnocytophaga canimorsus and how do we get it?

It's normal flora in dog>cats and we get it from bites

14

Management of animal bite wounds?

1. Irrigate the shit out of it, debridgement
2. X-rays to make sure surgical eval is not needed. Look for fractures.
3. Elevate extremity
4. Antibiotics
5. Tetanus (if human bite)

15

When do you give antibiotic prophylaxis?

1. Deep puncture wounds
2. Crush injuries
3. Wounds involving venous/lymphatic compromise
4. Wounds close to hand/joint/bone
5. Wounds needing surgical repair
6. Immunocompromised pt

16

Go to drug for dog/cat bites?

Amoxicillin-clavulanate

17

What drugs should you avoid?

1. Cephalexin
2. Dicloxacillin
3. Erythromycin

18

Alternative drugs if PCN allergy?

Fluoroquinolone+metronidazole or clindamycin
(DON'T USE CLINDAMYCIN ALONE--misses pasturella)

19

Pregnant lady with PCN allergy gets bit by a cat. NOOOOO! What do you treat her with??

Azithromycin.

Can't use PCN cuz of allergy
Can't use fluoroquinolones/metronidazole in pregnant ladies

20

Common pathogens transmitted through human bites

1. Staph/Strep
2. Anaerobes: Eikenella, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Porphyromonas
3. Viral: HBV, HCV, HSV

21

Human bite should make you think of

Eikenella corrodens

22

Structure of Eikenella corrodens

Fastidious Gram(-) facultative anaerobic bacillus

23

Tx for Eikenella corrodens

PCN (amox/clav), fluoroquinolones, TMP/SMX, doxy

24

What bacteria is associated with bites in the Middle East?

Acinetobacter baumannii

25

Structure of Acinetobacter baumannii

Gram(-) coccobacillus

26

Common infection from rats?

Streptobacillus moniliformis

27

Structure of Streptobacillus moniliformis

Gm (-) branching bacilli

28

Who gets Streptobacillus moniliformis?

children, low SES, labs, pet shops

29

What does Streptobacillus moniliformis cause?

rat bite fever”: relapsing fever, pustular rash, migratory polyarthritis
Common complication: endocarditis

30

Tx for Streptobacillus moniliformis?

PCN + beta lactamase inhibitor (amoxicillin + clavulanate= augmentin) , doxycycline