01022018 Flashcards Preview

ANTH 024 > 01022018 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01022018 Deck (13):
1

Symbolism, sport, and sustenance
- Ancient Maya hunting

- Sarah Neumann

2

Things to study

- Artifacts: tools, pots, etc.
- Body remains
- Architecture, trace

3

Zooarchaeology

- Animals in archaeology
- Interaction btw animals and human in the past
- e.g. domestic animals, hunting
> Symbolic meaning

4

Studies in zooarchaeology

Collect dead animal bodies / bones
1. Identification and quantification (e.g. use: teeth, bones > jewelry)
2. Contributions to and changes in ancient diet (Bronze age to Neolithic > Increase in sheep; becoz of technologies to raise sheep / climate change etc.)
3. Domestication
- Mouflon - ovis orientalis > wild;
sheep - ovis aries > domesticated species tends to be smaller
- Milk production (raising female for reproduction and milk production, killed when they stop producing);
kill-off pattern (male > female)
4. Bone tools, ornaments, and crafting technologies (>trade)

5

Research focus: Maya area sites

- Still many ppl living in Mexico: speak Maya, keep the traditions
- A particular ball game
- Mysterious “The Maya Collapse”
- Collapse and consumption
> Relative abundance of white-tailed deer remains at El Zotz over time
> High abundance at early classic
> Failing off (collapse) during late classic-terminal classic transition
> Start hunting other animals, e.g. rabbit, turtle (small body animals)
> Collapse changes the ways that ppl living

6

Optimal foraging

- Hunters (including humans) seek to max their hunting efficiency
- Always pursue the prey that offers the greatest caloric return

7

Topics to consider in the Maya

1. Dealing with deer
- NOT hunted: exponential growth within 10 years
- Most stable @little hunting pressure
2. Slash-and-burn agriculture
- Quickly depleted > NOT sustainable
- BUT perfect habitats for the deer
3. Change in hunting styles
> Pre-collapse (classic) hunting = spear
VS post-collapse (postclassic) hunting = trap
4. Animals NOT only = nutrition > crafts
5. Arts: Hunting = Power and pleasure (characters = males)
6. Training for hunt (ball game + imitating hunting for practice)
7. Training for war
8. Animals and enemies (make human looks like deer before sacrifice)
9. Other kinds of conquests
10. Meat and more (e.g. ecological, political, and social impacts)
> Hunting = more than consuming proteins

8

Lecture

- Log school hse (continued)

9

***Depositional environments (continued)

1. Non-depositional (e.g. lakeshore)
2. Accretional (e.g. Rockshelter)
3. Alluvial (e.g. floodplain)
4. Eolian (i.e., windblown) > Mangolia
5. Colluvial (e.g. mudslide)
6. Volcanic

10

Abbr

- B.C. (Same as B.C.E) = Before Christ (Before common era)
- A.D. (Same as C.E.) = Anno domini - in the yr of our Lord (Common era)
- B.P. = Before present

11

4. Eolian: Anguilla (site in Caribbean)

- Hurricane Irma 9/6/2017 > Damage on ppl, animals, vegetation, archaeological site
> Erosion, wind action on the land: Upper Shoal Bay East, Anguilla
- Hurricane Luis 1995
- Layers: Bright sand soil (done by hurricane / storm) - dark soil - bright sand > separation of context (NOT happened in non-depositional)

12

5. Colluvial

- Slope / slide > burial thgs as ppl do not have time to move
- e.g. Panabaj, Guatemala mudslide in 2005; Camarillo, California in 2014; Santa Catarina Penula, Guatemala in 2015,

13

6. Volcanic

1. Montserrat
- Surface collection before grass grows too long
- Wooden stakes to mark site
- Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (still active)
> The site previously working on is now covered by liquified mud
- Easy to date volcanic activity > C14 dating
2. Scott’s Head, Dominica
- Knowing the composition, depth > find the burials