08.12 - Ventilation, Mechanics, Volumes (Waters) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08.12 - Ventilation, Mechanics, Volumes (Waters) Deck (35):
1

Inspiratory Capacity = ___ + ___

Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Resting Tidal Volume

2

Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Resting Tidal Volume

Inspiratory Capacity

3

Functional Residual Capacity = ___ + ___

Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume

4

Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume

Functional Residual Capacity

5

Vital Capacity is composed of

Inspiratory Capacity + Expiratory Reserve Volume

6

Inspiratory Capacity + Expiratory Reserve Volume

Vital Capacity

7

FEV1 values less than 70% of FVC

Obstructive Lung Disease

8

Forced Vital Capacity

TV + IRV + ERV

9

TV + IRV + ERV

Forced Vital Capacity

10

Normal FEV1/FVC

80%

11

FEV1 in Obstructive Lung Disease

FEV1 less than 70% of Forced Vital Capacity (both decreased)

12

Reduced FVC with normal or increased FEV1 to FVC ratio

Restrictive Lung Disease

13

FEV1/FVC in Restrictive Lung Disease

Normal or Increased FEV1 to FVC Ratio

14

Physiologic Dead Space can be estimated as

Fraction of TV by measuring End-Tidal PCO2 and Arterial PCO2

15

Minute Ventilation =

Vmv = Tidal Volume x RR

16

Alveolar Ventilation (Valv) =

(TV - Dead Space) x RR

17

(TV - Dead Space) x RR

Alveolar Ventilation (Valv)

18

Trans-Respiratory System Pressure =

Palv - Patm

19

Trans-Pulmonary Pressure =

Ptp = Palv - Pip

20

Accessory muscles of Inspiration

Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoids

21

Expiratory Muscles

Abdominals, Internal Intercostals

22

Slope of the Pressure-Volume curve for the lung

Compliance

23

Compliance in Inhalation vs Exhalation

Greater during inhalation (slope greater)

24

Compliance in Restrictive Lung Diseases

Decreased - Can't get air in

25

Compliance in Obstructive Ventilatory Defects

Increased Compliance - Can't get air out

26

How to normalize Compliance

Divide by FRC -> provides a measure of elastic properties of lung tissue regardless of individual differences in lung volume

27

Vital Capacity in Obstructive vs Restrictive Ventilatory Defects

Normal in Obstructive, Decreased in Restrictive

28

How does surfactant affect lung compliance

Increases Lung Compliance

29

Compliance in Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the Newborn

Decreased

30

What is atalectasis

Unstable alveoli that collapse on expiration

31

The larger the radius, the ___ the pressure needed to keep it open

smaller

32

Laplace's Law = P = (T x 2 x pi x r)/(pi x r^2)

P = (T x 2 x pi x r)/(pi x r^2)

33

Poiseulle's Equation

R = 8nl/pir^4

34

Where is major resistance to air flow in respiratory system

Upper airways, even though radius larger

35

Lung Volume in Asthmatics

Pts with increased airway resistance often breathe at high lung volumes, which helps keep airway resistance lower