08.21 - Histamine (Sweatman) - Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08.21 - Histamine (Sweatman) - Questions Deck (47):
1

2 major sites of Histamine Biosynthesis

Mast Cells, Basophils

2

Enzyme that catalyzes Histamine Biosynthesis

L-Histidine Decarboxylase

3

3 Notable Activators of Histamine Synthesis and Release

GM-CSF, IL-3, Peptides

4

2 Notable inhibitors of Histmaine Synthesis and Release

Beta-antagonists; Cromolyn

5

3 Notable Histamine Activating Factors

Gastrin, Ca2+, Vancomycin

6

Ig isotype that causes Histamine

IgE

7

Cytokine that stimulates B cell to produce IgE

IL-4

8

Cytokine that stimulates TH1 to release IFN-g

IL-12

9

Release of histamine from granule matrix occurs by __ exchange

Cation

10

What percent of Mast Cell Granule does Histamine compose?

10%

11

Major actions of H1 receptors

SM contraction; Stim of NO formation; Endothelial cell contraction; Incr vascular permeability

12

Major actions of H2 receptors

Simulation of gastric acid secretion

13

Major actions of H3 receptors

Inhibition of NT release

14

Mediator of H2 signaling

AC --> cAMP --> Decr Ca2+, SIRS, PG --> Extracellular

15

Mediator of H1 signaling

GD --> cGMP --> PG, EDRF --> Extracellular

16

Histamine receptors in lung

H1 - Bronchoconstrict; H2 - Bronchodilation

17

Histamine receptors in heart

H1 - Slow AV conduction; H2 - Enhanced constraction

18

Histamine receptors in vasculature

H1, H2 - Microvasodilation; H1 - Permeability, Vasoconstriction

19

Histamine receptors in neural tissue

H1, H3 - Nerve ending stim, wakefullness and sedation

20

Histamine effects on capillaries

No effect

21

Histamine effects on venules

H1 - Rapid onset short term dilation (cap permeability); H2 - Slow onset persisent dilation

22

Histamine effects on Veins

H1 - Constriction of SM, Dilation of Endo; H2 - Dilation of SM

23

Histamine effects on Arteries

H1 - Constriction of SM, Dilation of Endo; H2 - Dilation of SM

24

Histamine effects on Arterioles

H1 - Rapid onset short term dilation; H2 - Slow onset persistent dilation

25

Effect of Mast Cells and Basophils on Mucus Glands

Diarrhea, Rhinorrhea, Bronchial secretion

26

Effect of Mast Cells/Basophils on Sensory Nerves

Itching

27

Advantages of Second Gen Anti-histamines

Longer, Fewer doses, Non-sedating, Limited anti-cholinergic

28

3 Notable Side Effects of 1st Gen H1-Antags

Impaired cognition, Dystonia, Nasal Congestion

29

1st gen with highest anti-cholinergic

Phenothiazines (promethazine)

30

1st gen with highest sedative effect

Phenothiazines (promethazine)

31

H1 blocker that acts on alpha-adrenergic

Promethazine

32

H1 blockers that act on Cholinergic receptors

Diphenhydramine, Promethazine

33

Experimental application of 2nd gen H1 blocker

Asthma

34

Side effects of 2nd gen H1 antagonists

Mild Cognitive Disturbance; Appetite stimulation

35

For what 2 applications are 1st gens better than 2nd

Atopic Dermatitis, Itching Dermatosis

36

For what 4 applications are only 1st gens effective (over 2nd)

Motion sickness, Antiemetic, Appetite Stimulation, Insomia

37

H4 receptor function

Hematopoeitic Cells: Mast Cell-dependent recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation

38

Locations of H1 receptors other than SM and Endothelium

Adrenal Medulla, Heart, CNS

39

Locations of H3 receptors

CNS, PNS, Endothelium, Enterochromaffin cells

40

Effect of H1 on Heart

Slowed AV conduction

41

Effect of H2 on Heart

Enhanced contraction

42

Effect of H1 on Lungs

Bronchoconstriction

43

Effect of H2 on Lungs

Bronchodilation

44

Effect of H1 on Neural Tissue

Nerve ending stimulation; Wakefullness and Sedation

45

Effect of H1 on Vasculature

Microvasodilation, Cap Permeability, Vasoconstriction

46

1st Gen H1 Antagonists

Diphenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate, Promethazine

47

2nd Gen H1 Antagonists

Fexofenadine, Cetirizine, Loratidine