Flashcards in 1/14/2016 Spinal Questions Deck (41):
Lumbar spondylolysis is associated with what characteristics?
Familial association, spina bifida occulta, racial/ethnic disparities, gender and locational bias, youthful incidence and activities requiring repetitive stress on the spine
What is the age range typically associated with lumbar spondylolysis?
10-20 years olds
What activities are particularly stressful at the pars interarticularis of lumbar vertebrae?
Gymnastics, dance, soccer
What fills the space in a lumbar spondylolysis?
What name has been given to the material filling the space in a lumbar spondylolysis?
Nociception, neuromodulation and autonomic function
What is the appearance of the lumbar vertebra upon oblique X-Ray view?
A Scotty dog
What is the appearance of a spondylolysis in a lumbar vertebra upon oblique X-Ray view?
A collared Scotty dog
In an oblique X-Ray, spondylolysis below the superior artful car process of a lumbar pars interarticularis is associated with what part of the Scotty dog?
The neck of the Scotty dog
What part of the lumbar vertebra forms the eye of a Scotty dog?
What part of a lumbar vertebra forms the ear of the Scotty dog?
The superior articular process
What part of a lumbar vertebra forms the nose of a Scotty dog?
The transverse process
What characteristics are associated with cervical spondylolysis?
Rare, congenital, gender biased toward men, most common at C6 and linked to spondylolisthesis and spina bifida
What characteristics are associated with sacral spondylolysis?
Rare in the general population
Within typical percent in the native Alaskan (Inuit) population
Seems to be acquired
Gender biased toward men, most common at S1 and linked to activities such as kayaking and harpooning
What is the incidence of sacral spondylolysis in the general population?
Is sacral spondylolysis the result of congenital conditions, acquired conditions or an age-related conditions?
It seems to be acquired
What is the ethnic, gender, and locational bias associated with sacral spondylolysis?
The native Alaskan (Inuit) male at the S1 level
Identify all names given to typical III spondylolisthesis?
What is the location bias of type I spondylolisthesis?
L5 or upper sacral segments
What additional conditions are linked to type 1 spondylolisthesis?
Spina bifida occulta and nerve root compression of the S1 nerve
Which subtype of type II spondylolisthesis is stressed in Spinal II?
Lytic spondylolisthesis or stress fracture induced spondylolisthesis
What is the cause most frequently given for type II spondylolisthesis?
Micro fractures as the result of repetitive stress during hyper Flexion and rotation
What is the age group typically associated with type II spondylolisthesis?
Teenagers or young adults
Lumbar spondylolysis has not been reported in what group of individuals?
Fetuses, newborn, rarely in children under five years old, patients who have never walked and in non-erect species
What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis?
Isthmus spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in Sagittal diameter of the spinal canal
What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis?
Degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in Sagittal diameter of the spinal canal
What causes type IV spondylolisthesis?
Fracture of the neural arch components
What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?
Bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta
What are medullary feeder arteries?
Enlarged radicular arteries which join the arterial vasa corona to provide blood for the spinal cord
What is the name of the largest medullary feeder artery?
The artery of Adamkiewicz or the arteria radicalis manga anterior
What are the characteristics of the Artery of Adamkiewicz?
It is the left side, anterior medullary feeder artery, located in the T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, and the primary vascular supply to the lumbar enlargement
What venous plexus lies next to the posterior longitudinal ligament?
The anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
What will the intervertebral veins drain into?
The external vertebral venous plexus or Batson's plexus
What is a unique histological feature of the veins of the vertebral column?
They appear to lack valves
What size lymphatic vessels lie in the intervertebral foramen?
Medium sized lymphatics
What type(s) of connective tissue will be present in the intervertebral foramen?
Adipose tissue and loose areolar connective tissue
What parts of the cervical vertebra will modify the intervertebral foramen?
The lateral groove and uncinate process
What happens to cervical nerve roots between their origin from the spinal cord and exit from the intervertebral foramen?
They descend along the spinal cord
What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine nerve root characteristics?
The length of the nerve root increases as it descends from its apparent origin on the spinal cord, but the cross-sectional area of the nerve root decreases
What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine intervertebral foramen size?
The cross-sectional area diminishes after age 50
What are the specific attachment sites for a cervical spinal nerve?
The sulcus for the ventral primary Ramus on the costotransverse bar and the vertebral artery