1: Anatomy - Bleeding Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 4 2016/17 > 1: Anatomy - Bleeding > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Anatomy - Bleeding Deck (60):
1

What does varicosed mean?

Dilation of a venous structure

2

Which parts of the large intestine are retroperitoneal?

Ascending colon

Descending colon

3

Which parts of the large intestine are intraperitoneal?

Caecum

Transverse colon

Sigmoid colon

4

What are the spaces between the lateral walls of the colon and the abdominal wall?

Paracolic gutters

5

What may collect in the paracolic gutters of supine patients with infection?

Pus

6

What spaces allow pus to travel from the lower abdominal cavity to higher parts?

Paracolic gutters

7

Which space is found lateral to the wall of the ascending colon?

Right paracolic gutter

8

What space is found lateral to the wall of the descending colon?

Left paracolic gutter

9

What are the small, fatty projections which come off the colon?

Omental appendices

10

What are the three longitudinal bands of muscle which run in the muscularis externa of the colon?

Teniae coli

11

What are the pouches formed by tonic contractions of the teniae coli, which serve to increase the surface area for absorption by the colon?

Haustra

12

1. Three bands of longitudinal muscle found in the colon

2. Pouches found in the colon which increase surface area for absorption

3. Fatty projections from the walls of the colon

Name 1-3.

1. Teniae coli

2. Haustra

3. Omental appendices

13

Haustra are formed by the contractions of the ___ ___.

teniae coli

14

Where in the abdomen are the caecum and appendix found?

Right iliac fossa

15

The appendix projects from which part of the colon?

Caecum

16

The position of the appendix can ___.

vary

17

The appendix is usually (anterior / posterior) to the caecum.

posterior

18

What is the passage between the distal ileum and the caecum?

Ileocaecal orifice

19

What is the passage between the caecum and the appendix?

Appendiceal orifice

20

Which point on the abdominal wall corresponds to the appendiceal orifice?

Where exactly is this?

McBurney's point

1/3rd of the distance between the ASIS and the umbilicus

21

Where, theoretically, is the majority of pain associated with appendicitis felt?

McBurney's point

1/3rd of the distance between the right ASIS and the umbilicus

22

Where in the abdomen is the sigmoid colon found?

Left iliac fossa

23

What is the long mesentery attached to the sigmoid colon?

Sigmoid mesocolon

24

What name is given to the twisting of the sigmoid colon around itself?

Sigmoid volvulus

25

What are the consequences of sigmoid volvulus?

Bowel obstruction

Ischaemia ⇒ Infarction

26

Where does the abdominal aorta pierce the diaphragm?

T12

27

Name the midline abdominal aortic branches found at T12, L1 and L3.

T12 - coeliac trunk

L1 - superior mesenteric artery

L3 - inferior mesenteric artery

28

Name the lateral abdominal aortic branches found at L1L2 and those found between L1-L4.

L1 - renal artery

L2 - gonadal artery

L1-L4 - lumbar arteries

29

Where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?

What does it bifurcate into?

L4

Right and left common iliac arteries

30

The superior mesenteric artery arises (anterior / posterior) to the neck of the pancreas.

posterior

31

Which branch of the SMA anastomoses with the coeliac trunk to supply the pancreas and duodenum?

Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

32

Which branch of the SMA supplies parts of the ascending AND transverse colon?

Middle colic artery

33

Which branch of the SMA supplies mainly the ascending colon?

Right colic artery

34

Which arteries, supplying the jejunum and ileum, come from the SMA?

Jejunal arteries

Ileal arteries

35

What are the two components of jejunal and ileal arteries?

Vasa rectae

Arcades

36

Compare the jejunum and ileum in terms of their vasa rectae and arcades.

Jejunum is MORE VASCULAR so it has longer vasa rectae and few, LARGE arcades

Ileum is LESS VASCULAR so it has shorter vasa rectae and MANY small arcades

37

At which level does the IMA branch off the abdominal aorta?

L3

38

Which branch of the IMA supplies mainly the descending colon?

Left colic artery

39

Which arteries supply the sigmoid colon?

Sigmoid arteries

40

Which branch of the IMA supplies the superior aspect of the rectum?

Superior rectal artery

41

The SMA and IMA anastomose via which artery?

Marginal artery of Drummond

42

In the event of obstruction, the marginal artery of Drummond helps to prevent intestinal ___.

How?

ischaemia

Provides collateral route for blood flow

43

Which branch of the IMA supplies up to the proximal half of the anal canal

Superior rectal artery

44

Which artery supplies the remainder of the anal canal not supplied by the superior rectal artery?

Internal iliac artery

45

Which vein drains blood to the liver from the foregut, midgut and hindgut?

Hepatic portal vein

46

Which vein drains blood from the foregut?

Splenic vein

47

Which vein drains blood from the midgut?

Superior mesenteric vein

48

Which vein drains blood from the hindgut?

Inferior mesenteric vein

49

Which vein does the inferior mesenteric vein drain into?

Splenic vein

50

Which vein does the superior mesenteric and splenic vein drain into?

Hepatic portal vein

51

Where are three sites of portal-systemic vein anastomosis?

Oesophagus

Umbilicus

Rectum

52

Which venous systems are joined at these anastomoses?

Portal venous system

Systemic venous system

53

Do veins in portal-systemic anastomoses have valves?

No

54

Where does the superior rectal vein drain?

Inferior mesenteric vein

55

Where do the middle and inferior rectal veins drain?

Internal iliac vein

56

What is portal hypertension?

Elevation of blood pressure in the portal system

57

Elevation of blood pressure within the portal system is called portal ___.

hypertension

58

What are two causes of portal hypertension?

Cirrhosis

Tumour compressing hepatic portal vein

59

Portal hypertension causes a reversal in blood flow.

Where does the blood go?

Areas of portal-systemic anastomosis, i.e:

Distal oesophagus

Umbilicus

Rectum / Anal canal

60

What are three clinical signs of portal hypertension?

Oesophageal varices

Caput medusae

Rectal varices