What is a diverticulum?
Mucosal herniation through muscle coat
Are diverticulae, seen in diverticular disease, false or true?
Not a true outpouching of GI tract - herniation of mucosa
What dietary deficiency is diverticular disease associated with?
Where do diverticulae tend to appear?
What is the difference between diverticulosis and diverticulitis?
Diverticulitis is inflammation
Which investigation can be used to view diverticular disease?
Are people with diverticulosis guaranteed to get diverticulitis?
Diverticulosis tends to be (symptomatic / asymptomatic).
Where does pain associated with diverticulitis appear?
Left iliac fossa
What is a fistula?
Communication between two visceral surfaces
Do patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis need to be managed in hospital?
What are patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis treated with?
How is complicated diverticulitis (e.g abcesses, peritonitis) treated?
What causes colitis?
cxr slide 16 - right colon is lumpy bumpy, left colon is smooth and featureless
on left side, characteristics features of the colon have been lost due to colitis
What imaging modality can be used to view the colon?
What is used to treat patients with severe Crohn's / UC once they have been resuscitated with IV fluids?
IV steroids (if infective/ischaemic ruled out)
Which type of colitis is caused by occlusion of the arteries?
The risk factors of which disease process increase your chances of developing ischaemic colitis?
Ischaemic colitis tends to appear in the (young / elderly).
What is an uncommon cause of rectal bleeding, caused by arterial/venous malformation?
Which investigation is used to diagnose colonic angiodysplasia?
How would you be able to tell that a patient had colonic angiodysplasia from a CT angiogram?
Colonic angiodysplasia can be treated by cauterising the haemorrhaging blood vessels. What complication may this cause?
What can cause large bowel obstruction?
What causes small bowel obstruction?
slide 24 - small bowel mainly with bits of large bowel, very dilated due to obstruction - omental appendices coming off colon, white stripes are teniae coli
What are the four cardinal symptoms of GI obstruction?
What palliative procedure can be used to alleviate symptoms of large bowel obstruction, e.g in cancer with metastasis?
Which part of the colon has the most mesentery and is therefore the most mobile?
When the sigmoid colon twists around its mesentery and the blood supply is blocked, what is this called?
What are the complications?
Ischaemia, infarction, gangrene
slide 27 - coffee bean distension pointing into LIF
Which disease mimics large bowel obstruction but, upon investigation, yields no actual cause?
Who gets pseudo-obstruction?
Those with underlying medical probs (elderly/dehabilitated)
What is a true diverticulum?
Diverticulum involving all layers of bowel wall, proper outpouching
What is a false diverticulum?
Herniation of mucosa through muscle wall, only mucosa and serosa are involved