9: Gastroenteritis and food poisoning Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 4 2016/17 > 9: Gastroenteritis and food poisoning > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9: Gastroenteritis and food poisoning Deck (56):
1

What is diarrhoea?

Unformed stools

2

What is unformed stool?

Stool which holds the shape of the container it is in (liquid)

3

What can be found in unformed stool (re: diarrhoea) which is a red flag?

Blood

Mucous

4

Which class of drug can cause diarrhoea?

Laxatives

5

What is food poisoning?

Illness caused by eating food contaminated with

microorganisms

toxins

poisons

6

Which GI symptoms are associated with food poisoning?

Nausea & Vomiting

Abdominal pain

Diarrhoea (vanilla, watery or bloody)

7

Which types of microorganism can cause food poisoning?

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasites

8

Food poisoning - related microorganisms invade the tissue of the GI tract. What else can they do to produce disease?

Produce toxins

9

What microorganisms have a short incubation period of 1-6 hours?

Staph. aureus

Bacillus cereus

10

Microorganisms involved in short onset food poisoning (1-6 hours) don't have time to multiply profusely. Why do they cause disease?

Pre-formed toxins in the food already

11

What food is Bacillus cereus associated with?

Starchy food which is poorly reheated

e.g rice

12

Food poisoning presenting rapidly (1-6 hours) are caused by which bacteria?

Staph aureus

Bacillus cereus

13

Which poisoning is caused by pre-formed toxins found in poorly stored fish, e.g tinned tuna?

What sort of reaction do you get?

Why?

Scombroid poisoning

Allergic reaction (rash, headache, shock)

Produces toxin which causes histamine response

14

Toxins cause an outpouring of ___ into the bowel lumen, causing diarrhoea.

fluid

15

Which microorganisms have a medium incubation period (12-48 hours)?

Salmonella

C. perfringens

16

Which bacteria have a long incubation period?

Campylobacter spp.

E. coli 0157

17

What are the commonest causes of GI infection?

Campylobacter

18

Which bacteria causes outbreaks of food poisoning?

Salmonella

19

Which bacteria causes outbreaks of food poisoning with morbidity?

E. coli

20

GI tract infections are common in ___ patients.

immunosuppressed

21

What do bacteria need to multiply?

Time

Temperature

Food source

Moisture

22

Why can Bacillus cereus survive in adverse conditions?

Spores

23

What is the most common bacteria involved in food poisoning?

Campylobacter spp.

24

What is gastroenteritis?

Infectious inflammation of GI tract

25

What needs to be included in a stool sample for it to be tested for the right bacteria?

Full history

Bristol stool rank

26

All stool samples are tested for which bacteria?

C. difficile

27

___ media allow specific pathogens to be grown on an agar plate.

Selective

28

How long does it take for Campylobacter to incubate?

16-48 hours

29

Which foods are likely to cause Campylobacter infection?

Raw poultry

Raw cheese, milk products

30

Antibiotics aren't commonly prescribed to those with Campylobacter infection. Why?

Which antibiotic would be given to select patients?

Self limiting, only given to severely immunosuppressed

Macrolides so clarithromycin

31

Which Campylobacter species is the one most commonly found in gastroenteritis?

C. jejuni

32

Which infection commonly occurs in outbreaks and can lead to bacteriaemia?

Salmonella

33

Which foods can lead to Salmonella infection?

Poultry

Meat

Raw egg

34

Which symptom is characteristic of infectious gastroenteritis?

Fever

35

Which species of Salmonella causes gastroenteritis?

S. enteritidis

36

Salmonella associated with gastroenteritis is (typhoidal / non-typhoidal).

non-typhoidal

37

Which antigen is found on the LPS of Salmonella?

O antigen

38

Different types of Salmonella are classified on the type of ___ found on their cell membranes.

antigen

O antigen specifically

39

E. coli also have ___ antigens.

O

40

Which specific type of E. coli is commonly associated with gastroenteritis?

O157 E. coli

41

E. coli release cytotoxins.

What are these?

Toxic / destructive effect on cells

42

What is the result of cytotoxins released by E. coli and Shigella?

Bloody diarrhoea

43

Why are cytotoxins also called Shiga-like toxins?

E. coli and Shigella produce similar toxins

44

Why does E. coli / Shigella infection have poor outcomes in older, younger and pregnant people?

Causes bleeding

Complication is haemolytic ureamic syndrome which is also very bad

45

Why aren't antibiotics given to people with gastroenteritis?

Antibiotics aren't effective against E. coli 0157 and allow them to proliferate (reduced competition)

So increased production of Shiga-like toxin

So increased damage and risk of complications (HUS)

So poorer patient outcome

46

What is the main symptom of O157 E. coli infection?

Bloody diarrhoea

47

How much E. coli needs to invade you to cause infection?

Very little

48

Which is E. coli associated with mortality?

Enterohaemorrhagic disease

i.e bleeding in the colon, rectum

49

Which other system is damaged by E. coli infection?

Why?

Renal system

Cytotoxin binds to and kills these cells as well

50

What is HUS?

Haemolytic ureamic syndrome

a renal complication of E. coli 0157 gastroenteritis.

51

How does HUS present?

Yet more bloody diarrhoea

Abdominal pain

Fever

Pallor

Petechiae

Oliguria

52

Who needs to be notified about HUS / E. coli infection?

Health Protection Unit

53

Is all diarrhoea caused by infection?

Nah

54

What are two viruses which cause gastroenteritis?

Rotavirus

Norovirus

55

Which virus, causing gastroenteritis, is common in children?

Rotavirus

56

Which virus is also known as the "winter vomiting bug" and causes explosive diarrhoea and vomiting?

Norovirus