What is a polyp?
Protrusion above epithelial surface
general term for masses found on epithelial surfaces
Is a polyp benign or malignant?
You don't know until you've investigated it
What is an adenoma?
Benign epithelial tumour of the glands
What is an adenocarcinoma?
Malignant epithelial tumour of the glands
What are the most common polyps found in the colon?
Pendunculated polyps hang off ___ attached to the walls of the colon.
Sessile polyps are hard to distinguish from the epithelium because they're ___.
What process would be seen in the epithelium of a polyp under the microscope?
Are adenomas benign or malignant?
What is procedure is performed on polyps once they are found?
What type of tumour can adenomas progress to if they aren't removed?
Which genes mutate to drive cancer progression?
Tumour suppressor genes
Cancer has a strong ___ basis.
By which two methods are adenomas removed?
What is the treatment for adenocarcinoms found in the colorectum?
Surgery to remove tumour
What can adenocarcinomas cause in the large bowel?
What process occurs in tumours when they lose their blood supply?
Higher stages correlate with poor ___ for the patient.
What staging system is used for colorectal cancer?
What is a Dukes A tumour?
Tumour which is confined by muscularis externa
What is a Dukes B tumour?
Tumour has spread through muscularis externa
What is a Dukes C tumour?
Tumour has spread through muscularis externa AND metastasised to lymph node
Which symptoms present with left-sided colorectal cancer?
Blood in the stool
Altered bowel habits
What symptoms present with right-sided colorectal cancer?
Which structures are associated with left-sided colorectal cancer?
Which structures are associated with right-sided colorectal cancer?
Why do patients with right-sided colorectal cancer experience anaemia and weight loss?
Where can colorectal cancer directly spread?
Which lymph nodes drain the midgut/hindgut and may allow lymphatic spread of colorectal cancer?
Superior / inferior mesenteric nodes
Which organ may colorectal cancer spread to via the portal circulation?