2: Colorectal pathology Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 4 2016/17 > 2: Colorectal pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Colorectal pathology Deck (32):
1

What is a polyp?

Protrusion above epithelial surface

general term for masses found on epithelial surfaces

2

Is a polyp benign or malignant?

You don't know until you've investigated it

3

What is an adenoma?

Benign epithelial tumour of the glands

4

What is an adenocarcinoma?

Malignant epithelial tumour of the glands

5

What are the most common polyps found in the colon?

Adenomas

6

Pendunculated polyps hang off ___ attached to the walls of the colon.

stalks

7

Sessile polyps are hard to distinguish from the epithelium because they're ___.

flat

8

What process would be seen in the epithelium of a polyp under the microscope?

Dysplasia

9

Are adenomas benign or malignant?

Benign

10

What is procedure is performed on polyps once they are found?

Removal

11

What type of tumour can adenomas progress to if they aren't removed?

Adenocarcinoma (malignant)

12

Which genes mutate to drive cancer progression?

Tumour suppressor genes

Oncogenes

13

Cancer has a strong ___ basis.

genetic

14

By which two methods are adenomas removed?

Endoscopy

Surgery

15

What is the treatment for adenocarcinoms found in the colorectum?

Surgery to remove tumour

Colon/Rectum removed

16

What can adenocarcinomas cause in the large bowel?

Ulcers

Obstruction (strictures)

17

What process occurs in tumours when they lose their blood supply?

Necrosis

18

Higher stages correlate with poor ___ for the patient.

prognosis

19

What staging system is used for colorectal cancer?

Dukes staging

20

What is a Dukes A tumour?

Tumour which is confined by muscularis externa

21

What is a Dukes B tumour?

Tumour has spread through muscularis externa

22

What is a Dukes C tumour?

Tumour has spread through muscularis externa AND metastasised to lymph node

23

Which symptoms present with left-sided colorectal cancer?

Blood in the stool

Altered bowel habits

Bowel obstruction

24

What symptoms present with right-sided colorectal cancer?

Anaemia

Weight loss

25

Which structures are associated with left-sided colorectal cancer?

Descending colon

Sigmoid colon

Rectum

26

Which structures are associated with right-sided colorectal cancer?

Caecum

Ascending colon

27

Why do patients with right-sided colorectal cancer experience anaemia and weight loss?

Bleeding

28

Where can colorectal cancer directly spread?

Abdominal organs

Peritoneum

29

Which lymph nodes drain the midgut/hindgut and may allow lymphatic spread of colorectal cancer?

Superior / inferior mesenteric nodes

30

Which organ may colorectal cancer spread to via the portal circulation?

Liver

31

Colorectal cancer be ___ through generations.

inherited

32

Colorectal carcinomas tend to be autosomal (dominant / recessive).

autosomal dominant