Out-pouching found in the large bowel via endoscopy indicate ____ disease.
What is a diverticulum?
Herniation of the mucosa through the muscle coat
What can happen to diverticula to produce disease?
What collects in diverticula?
Why do diverticulae become inflamed?
What does the initial diverticulosis progress to?
Blockage (e.g with seeds, food products)
What dietary factor is associated with diverticular disease?
Low fibre diet
Symptoms only occur if the diverticular disease is ___.
What name is given to inflammation of diverticulae?
If inflammation weakens the walls of diverticulae, what can happen?
If pus/faeces/bacteria leak from a ruptured diverticulum into the abdominal cavity, what can develop?
What can develop on the walls of the colon following diverticular rupture?
What can develop between viscera following diverticular disease?
What organ, close to the large bowel, can develop a fistula following diverticular disease?
Why can diverticular disease cause blood in the stool?
Why does low fibre intake cause diverticular disease?
Stool is more liquidy, harder to move along colon than solid
Greater pressure contractions, produces diverticular disease
How are most cases of diverticular disease treated?
Who commonly develops ischaemia of the large bowel?
Those at risk of atherosclerosis
What side of the large bowel tends to become ischaemic?
around the splenic flexure
What disease process and which vessels are affected to produce large bowel ischaemia?
S / I mesenteric arteries
"withering of crypts"
"pink smudgy lamina propria"
"few chronic inflam. cells"
indicators of large bowel ischaemia
What are some complications of ischaemic colitis?
Stricture --> obstruction due to fibrosis following ischaemia
What does a patient have if you find patchy membranes stuck to mucosa throughout the colonic wall?
Anti-biotic induced colitis
"volcano like fibrinopurulent exudate lesions"
antibiotic-induced pseudomembranous colitis
What drugs cause the patchy membranous colitis seen all over the colonic wall?
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Which bacteria produces toxins to kill the epithelium of the colon following broad spectrum antbiotic treatment?
What drug can be used to treat infection following antibiotic-induced colitis?
What is wrong with a patient's large bowel if they have watery diarrhoea?
One of the microscopic colitis diseases - nothing can be seen grossly
What becomes thicker and more prominent in the epithelial cells of patients with collagenous colitis (with watery diarrhoea)?
Thickened basal lamina
What drugs can cause microscopic collagenous colitis?
Another patient has watery diarrhoea. Under the microscope they have increased numbers of IELs reminiscent of Coeliac disease. What disease do they actually have?
increased numbers of IELs
What disease may someone have if they show microscopic lymphocytic colitis?
What are the two types of microscopic colitis?
thick walled blood vessels
indicators of radiation induced coltis
What is radiation induced colitis caused by?
What should be asked about in the history of someone with suspected radiation-induced colitis?
Past medical history
(previous history of cancer?)
Acute colitis is commonly caused by ___.