1: Bacterial Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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1

Francisella tularensis

gram neg coccusbaccilus (between round and rod)
Bioterrorism
Tularemia: lung infection leads to septicemia and lymph node swelling
not usually deadly
carried by rabbits and small rodents
easily areosolized... like by lawn mowed rabbit

2

Hittite Plauge

earliest bioweapon attack
14th cent
Francisella tularensis
a lady walked a sick ram by the other soliders for days and then they got sick
they retreated, they didn't die

3

Francisella tularensis as a bioweapon

"rabbit fever"
easy to aerosolize
very infectious... only 10-15 bacteria needed to infect
non-persistend, easy to decontaminate
highly incapacitating
low lethality

4

Types of work within cell

Chemical work: make and break bonds
Transport work: move molecs against gradients
Mechanical work: movement of organism/structures in cell

5

activation energy

amount of nrg we have to put into system to get it over the hump
nrg required to overcome instability of rxn intermediate/the transition state (unstable halfway point)

6

enzymes

lower activation nrg
by stabilizing intermediate
this incs rate of transition from A and B to A+B

7

what drives chemcial reactions?

ENTROPY

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enzymes help...

reaction happen more stablely and more quickly

9

where does the energy come from if we have no enzymes?

HEAT

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substrate

the thing the enzyme is going to change

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active site

where the chemistry of enzyme and substrate interaction happens

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parameters for enzymes

pH
temperature

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temp body/bacteria in body enzymes work best at

37 degrees

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pH body/bacteria in body enzymes work best at

7

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at temps that are higher

enzymes have decreased activity
because of denaturation

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at temps that are low

enzymes don't work as well bc of lack of heat energy

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too acidic

too many protons... they get in the way, interact with stuff they shouldn't

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too basic

potons may leave the thing they're supposed to be with

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but ultimately, bacterial pH and temperature requirements depend on....

the environment they live it

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substrate concentration

inc conc, inc enzymatic rate (up till saturation)

substrate ineraction happens randomly

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cofactor

non-protein
associated with enzymeatic activity

metal ions (iron, copper, magnesium, zinc)

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holoenzyme

apopenzyme and cofactor together... has activity
(components don't have activity on their own)

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apopenzyme

protein part of enzyme

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sterility of stomach

bc the pH is so low

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coenzyme

subset of cofactor
ORGANIC molecules
NAD
often derived from vitamins
used repeatedly

26

proenzyme

innactive form of enzyme
must be modified before it is active
this happens pretty quickly

27

Enzyme Inhibition types

Competitive
Non-competitive
Uncompetitive

how we kill bacteria

28

Competitive Inhibition

inhibitior binds to active site, competes with substrate
more inhibitor means enzyme is inactive bc susbstrate can't bind to it

29

Non-competitive Inhibition

bind somewhere other than active site
cause conf change
enzyme has different shape, substrate can't bind to active site

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Uncompetitive Inhibition

inhibitor binds to the enzyme/substrate complez so that the substrate can't be released

enzyme can't function bc product not made, can't bind to new substrates.

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important inhibitors

Toxins (effector proteins)
Antibiotics: Kanamycin inhibits bacterial ribosomes
Antivirals
Zidovudine: HIV antiviral inhibits reverse transcriptase
Tamiflu: inhibits influenza enzyme for viron release

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antivirals are usually

competitve or non-competiative

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metabolism

catabolism and anabolism

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catabolism

breaking down of compunds
releases more ATP

35

anabolism

synthesis

36

catabolism and anabolism...

BOTH release nrg
in the form of heat

37

glucose made of

6 carbons
6 oxygens
12 hydrogens

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whats special about glucose?

super soluble in water

39

ATP and money

the "loose change"
but everyone can deal in it

40

NAD

$100 bill
how you take lots of money across state lines

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what is ATP good for

storing nrg for a SHORT period of time

42

ATP phosphate bonds

transition from ATP to ADP: phosphate release
VERY LOW activation nrg req... easy to break off that phosphate

Making RNA... break off 2 phosphates
the second one is more stable, so breaking the second one off releases more nrg
high activation nrg

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high activation nrg

stable

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low activation nrg

unstable

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is ATP stable or unstable

unstable
easy to break
good for short term storage

46

What is NADH

a coenzyme

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REDOX

OIL RIG
movement of electrons
be able to identify what's reduced and what's oxidized... you got this

48

NADH

reduced electron carrier

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NAD+

electron carrier... gets reduced

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proton

a hydrogen atom without an electron
aka a hydrogen ion

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the Role of NAD+

cofactor for lotssss of enzymes

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NADH

reduced form of NAD+ has 2 extra electrons and one extra proton
neutral (not pos charged)
more stable than ATP

53

NADH is

the $100 bill
carries electrons
- to ETS
if no oxygen, it must be recycled to NAD+... this is why we have fermentation

54

glycolysis

glucose to pyruvate
uses a little ATP... gains a litle ATP
fermentation recycles NADH to NAD+

55

oxidative phosphorylation

when oxygen present
transfer electrons to slightly lower nrg states
move protons from one side membrane to other

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oxygen

final electron acceptor
takes electron to its lowest nrg state