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Flashcards in 6: Killing Bacteria II Deck (57):
1

Borrelia Burgdoferi

Lyme disease
North East US

2

Trepomeia Pallidum

sexual or congenital origin
grows only in humans and rabit testes
causes shphillis
2 negatives... like Gram neg
axial fillament (flagella that starts in periplasmic space instead of outside) contortion of whole cell for movement
very small genome
spiral shape

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Terpomeia Pallidum History

syphilis given to Columbus' crew by native americans

south america syphilis caused european syphilis

4

Pros and cons to small genome

con: limited number of environments it can live in
pro: requires less nrg for replication

5

Tuskegee Syphillis Experiment

Trepomenia Pallidum
625 black men enrolled 1932-1972
not treated... researchers observed them dying
lead to having "informed consent"

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Subspecies of Treponema

pallidum (syphilis)
pertenue (Yaws)

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Syphilis

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary

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Primary Syphilis

direct sexual contact with infectious lesion
lesion appears 3-90 days after contact
chancer: lesion

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Secondary Syphilis

4-10 weeks after exposure
rash

10

Tertiary Syphilis

3-15 yrs after exposure
soft tummor like inflamations in skin and bone

11

Congenital Syphilis

early (first year)L rash, fever, neurosyphyilis, pnemonitis)
Late: saddle nose deformation, saber shit

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Yaws

tropical skin infection
subspecies T. pallidum pertenue

13

Disk Diffusion

place filter disc satuared with compound on lawn of bacteria
more clearing... bigger zone of clearance, more effective

14

Kirby-bauer

subset of disk diffusion tests

15

Surfacants

DON'T kill bacteria
DISLODGE bacteria

soap and detergent
Acid aninonic sanitizers
Quats

16

Acid aninonic sanitizers

aninoic react with plasma membranes
non-toxic, non-corrosive

17

Quats

wuaternary ammonium compounds
good antimicrobial
ineffective afainst pseudomonads

18

antimicrobial soap

soap plus another compound

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Chemical Food Preservation

Don't kill bacteria
inhibit bacterial growth

organic acids and salts
sulfer dioxides
potassium sorbate/sodium benzoate
Sodium nitrate and nitrite

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organic acids and salts

chem
easily metabolized by us... but also bacteria... so least effective but best for body

21

sulfer dioxides

Wine... used by Homer
kind of distasteful and toxic, but good in small amounts

22

potassium sorbate/sodium benzoate

perserves acidic foods from molds
cheese and soda
not metabolized well, but not dangerous... build up

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Sodium nitrate and nitrite

Slim jims
can become carcinogen if eaten too much... liver cancer

24

alcohols

kill bacteria (bacteriacidal)
denature proteins in large enough concs
requires water for activity!

25

advantages of alcohol

cheap
leaves no residue... good for surfaces

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disadvantages of alcohol

skin drying
doesn't kill spores and non-enveloped viruses (colds... flu IS enveloped)

27

overuse of ethanol in hospitals

killed everything but. C. difficile... spike in it since it ad less competetion and had better chance of transmission

28

concentrations of alcohol that don't work at any exposure time

100%... need water!
40% (what we drink)

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2 things to consider with effectivness of alcohol

concentration
exposure time

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why do we need water with alcohol

water breaks hydrogen bonds

31

best alcohol conc

65-70%

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Halogens

bacteriacidal
Chlorine
Bleach
Iodine
(fluoridation of water)

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Iodine tincture

mix iodine with alcohol and 10% water to make iodine more soluble... its pretty insoluble by itself

iodine not toxic to human tissue
iodine can be used to sterilize water
skin and wound antiseptic

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Chlorine

most effective... but damaging to host
gas react with water to make hypoclorous acid... strong oxidizer

35

Bleach

destroys tissue
10% bleach is great surface disinfectant

36

Heavy Metals

KILL bacteria
combine with sulfylhydril groups in protiens... denaturation

silver, copper, mercury, zinc... oldest...water and why we thrown coins into fountains

37

Silver nitrate sollution

put in babies eyes to prevent gonorrhoea which causes blindness

38

copper and mercury chloride

less used bc toxinc to humans

39

Aldehydes

kill bacteria... and ppl
covalently link to proteins and destroy function

formaldehyde
formalin
Glutraldehyde

40

formaldehyde

crosslink with proteins
preserve appearance... changes composition... toxic
good for bio spills... sterlization... destroys bio things that we don't want... vat of flu

41

formalin

great disinfectant
sample preservation

42

Glutraldehyde

sterilize medical instruments

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mixture of Glutraldehyde and formaldehyde

prep cells for microscopy

44

chemiical sterlization

kill everything in the room
closed chamber

ethlene oxide
chlorine dioxide
formalin gas
vaporous hydrogen peroxide

45

ethlene oxide

react with side groups of bioc chems

has a VERY reactive oxygen that does this
oxidizes pretty much anything
sterlizer... kills everything


fumigant (termites)

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chlorine dioxide

drinking water

47

most to least resistant microbes

Prions
Endospores of Bacteria
Mycobacteria
Cysts of Protozoa
Vegetative Protozoa
Gram-neg Bacteria
Fungi (most fungal spores too)
Viruses w/o envelopes
Gram Positive Bacteria
Viruses w/ lipid envelopes

48

another way to kill bacteria

mutations

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mutations

permanent change in primary sequence of DNA
change in one strand... eventually subsequent replication leads to a base change

matter in the CODING sequence!!!!!

50

nonsense mutations

early stop codon
often lethal

51

missence mutations

change in coding sequence... different amino acid
sometimes lethal
sometimes has phenotype

52

frame shift mutation

add or remove 1-2 nucleotides
shift how codons are read
change sequence of protein

may mean stop codon not read as stop codon... more amino acids added than there should be

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where do mutations matter (what sequence)

the CODING sequence

you can get away with mutations in the non-coding sequence

54

How mutations happen

polymerase mistakes
UV light
Mutagenic Agents

55

polymerase mistakes

has proofreading capability... but still makes mistakes
1:10,000 base pairs

56

UV Light

Thymine dimers
T-T can pair with G... single base pair deletion... change in sequence (replace with single cytosine)

frame shift and/or missence

57

Mutagenic Agents

chemical agents tht react with DNA and cause improper base pairing