Flashcards in 2: Microbial Growth Deck (47):
Glanders in Horses
WWI: first use of bioterrorism with this in the US
spread it among horses
Most common (reported) STI in US
asymptomatic: 25% of men and 70% women don't know they have it
causes infertility in women
CANNOT live outside human host
metabolically inert like spore
not a virus bc it has ribosomes
obligate and infects mucosal tissues (including eyes)
Buring sensation during urination
Chlamydia Elementary Bodies
stick to human sperm to transit M to F
small infectious particle found in secretions
reticulate bodies (Chlamydia)
as soon as they get inside host cell
divide, some become new elementary bodies
once cell fills up with reticulate bodies, the cell will burst, release elementary bodies... repeat
how many days after you get it can you give it?
overview of Chlamydia lifecycle
EB transform to RB, RB multiply in cell
some RBs go back to EBs, host cell bursts, EBs released and infect more cells
Magic Johnson effect
he got HIV, people started being safer
He stayed well, people think its cured, unsafe sex again
what do we regernated if we do glycolysis and there's no oxygen?
so we can add another e- to it
put the e- on pyruvate?
What move electrons TO the ETS?
What makes ATP?
Use oxygen as FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
some cells use SH2 as final electron acceptor
turns 6 carbon sugar into 6 CO2, H2O, 36ATP
What is the final electron acceptor
what does oxygen do?
pulls electrons off of things to take them to a lower nrg state
varied electron acceptors
takes 6 carbon sugar and makes into 2 or 3 carbon organic acid or alcohol
Electron Acceptor Examples:
- acetic acid (vinegar)
- lactic acid
PRODUCES about 1/10th the nrg as respiration
we use aerobic activities to change our food
when do we need to regenerate NAD+
if we have no oxygen after glycolysis
CONVERT TO NAHD
we NEED NAD+ for glycolysis
what does glucose go to first?
1 6 carbon to 2 3 carbons
decreases as we go through the process
phosphorylation of glucose... why? (2 reasons)
add a phosphate from ATP...
1) DESTABALIZE , so its easier to break off carbons
2) charge glucose so it Can't leave the cell
what happens when we remove the phosphates from glucose?
make pyruvic aicd
make ATP or
the big picture of changing glucose...
lots of enzymes are doing things to glucose in small steps
we release nrg and transfer electrons to either make more ATP or to make NADHs
if we have oxygen after glycolysis
deal with NADH
feed into Krebs cycle
what does the Krebs cycle make
INHIBITS enzyme activity
too much product
what carriers electrons to the ETS? NADH or NAD+
the ETS... what do the enzymes do with the nrg that we get when we take off the electrons
pump protons across the membrane
what is a proton?
a hydrogen molec without an electron
what do cytochromes require?
life evolved with lots of iron before oxygen
evolved to use enzymes with iron in them when we got oxygen
now its harder to have enough iron to deal with the oxygen
i dont understand this, he talked about it on slide 17
how do we measure differences in proton concentration?
at every step... what happens to the protons
they are pumped outside the cell
proton gradient created
the proton motive force
uses difference of proton concentration inside and outside to convert ADP to ATP
what does ATP synthase do
equalizes... lets protons come back into cell
how ATP synthase works
converts gradient nrg to mechanical nrg... it spins
gradient nrg leads to changes in the F1 state (the rotating part)
due to movement of protons back across membrane
gradient nrg-> mechanical nrg 1-> mechanical nrg 2
2 states of the F1 component
Diagonal State State
transition form straight to diagonal
addition of phosphate to ADP
due to rocking of the F1 state
who's cells are more efficient in making nrg?
what else can be metabolized?
depends on your ATP levels
low ATP: proteins and lipid breakdown
high ATP: synthesis
synth of new molecules
feed of carbohydrate catabolism
lots of enzymes... maintain homeostasis
take chlorophyll and make light nrg
put light nrg into high nrg electrons
send the electrons to the ETS
How do we grow bacteria in a pure culture
have to create an environment where olny the bacteria you want can grow
figure out its requirements and exclude all others
why grow in a pure culture?
to study the organism in absence of everything else
Can we grow all bacteria in pure culture?
Nope! Not even a little bit!
what kind of bacteria usually affect humans (only one we'll talk about temp wise)
human body temp range is 30-40 degrees