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Flashcards in 2: Microbial Growth Deck (47):
1

Burkholderia mellei

Glanders in Horses
WWI: first use of bioterrorism with this in the US
spread it among horses

2

Chlamydia

Most common (reported) STI in US
asymptomatic: 25% of men and 70% women don't know they have it
causes infertility in women
CANNOT live outside human host
metabolically inert like spore
not a virus bc it has ribosomes
small
obligate and infects mucosal tissues (including eyes)

3

Chlamydia symptoms

Buring sensation during urination
painful intercourse
rectal pain/discharge
discharge (clear)

4

Chlamydia Elementary Bodies

small
stick to human sperm to transit M to F
small infectious particle found in secretions

5

reticulate bodies (Chlamydia)

intracellular form
as soon as they get inside host cell
divide, some become new elementary bodies
once cell fills up with reticulate bodies, the cell will burst, release elementary bodies... repeat

6

how many days after you get it can you give it?

1-2 days

super quick

7

overview of Chlamydia lifecycle

EB transform to RB, RB multiply in cell
some RBs go back to EBs, host cell bursts, EBs released and infect more cells

8

Magic Johnson effect

he got HIV, people started being safer
He stayed well, people think its cured, unsafe sex again

9

what do we regernated if we do glycolysis and there's no oxygen?

NAD+
so we can add another e- to it
put the e- on pyruvate?

10

What move electrons TO the ETS?

NADH

11

What makes ATP?

ATP synthase

12

Respiration

Use oxygen as FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR

some cells use SH2 as final electron acceptor

turns 6 carbon sugar into 6 CO2, H2O, 36ATP

13

What is the final electron acceptor

Oxygen

sometimes SH2

14

what does oxygen do?

pulls electrons off of things to take them to a lower nrg state

15

Fermentation

varied electron acceptors
takes 6 carbon sugar and makes into 2 or 3 carbon organic acid or alcohol
Electron Acceptor Examples:
- acetic acid (vinegar)
- ethanol
- lactic acid
PRODUCES about 1/10th the nrg as respiration

we use aerobic activities to change our food

16

when do we need to regenerate NAD+

if we have no oxygen after glycolysis

CONVERT TO NAHD

we NEED NAD+ for glycolysis

17

what does glucose go to first?

pyruvate
1 6 carbon to 2 3 carbons

18

nrg state...

decreases as we go through the process

19

phosphorylation of glucose... why? (2 reasons)

add a phosphate from ATP...
1) DESTABALIZE , so its easier to break off carbons
2) charge glucose so it Can't leave the cell

20

what happens when we remove the phosphates from glucose?

make pyruvic aicd
make ATP or
produce NADHs

21

the big picture of changing glucose...

lots of enzymes are doing things to glucose in small steps
we release nrg and transfer electrons to either make more ATP or to make NADHs

22

if we have oxygen after glycolysis

deal with NADH
feed into Krebs cycle

23

what does the Krebs cycle make

NADH
ATP
FADH2

24

Excess NADH...

INHIBITS enzyme activity

too much product

25

what carriers electrons to the ETS? NADH or NAD+

NADH

26

the ETS... what do the enzymes do with the nrg that we get when we take off the electrons

pump protons across the membrane

27

what is a proton?

a hydrogen molec without an electron

28

what do cytochromes require?

oxygen

29

iron

life evolved with lots of iron before oxygen
evolved to use enzymes with iron in them when we got oxygen
now its harder to have enough iron to deal with the oxygen

i dont understand this, he talked about it on slide 17

30

how do we measure differences in proton concentration?

pH

31

at every step... what happens to the protons

they are pumped outside the cell

proton gradient created

32

ATP synthase

the proton motive force

uses difference of proton concentration inside and outside to convert ADP to ATP

33

what does ATP synthase do

equalizes... lets protons come back into cell

34

how ATP synthase works

converts gradient nrg to mechanical nrg... it spins
gradient nrg leads to changes in the F1 state (the rotating part)
due to movement of protons back across membrane

gradient nrg-> mechanical nrg 1-> mechanical nrg 2

35

2 states of the F1 component

Straight State
Diagonal

36

Straight State

accepts ADP

37

Diagonal State State

releases ATP

38

transition form straight to diagonal

addition of phosphate to ADP

due to rocking of the F1 state

39

who's cells are more efficient in making nrg?

bacteria

40

what else can be metabolized?

Proteins, lipids
depends on your ATP levels
low ATP: proteins and lipid breakdown
high ATP: synthesis

41

Anabolism

synth of new molecules
feed of carbohydrate catabolism

lots of enzymes... maintain homeostasis

42

Photosynthesis

take chlorophyll and make light nrg
put light nrg into high nrg electrons
send the electrons to the ETS
make glucose

43

How do we grow bacteria in a pure culture

have to create an environment where olny the bacteria you want can grow
figure out its requirements and exclude all others

44

why grow in a pure culture?

to study the organism in absence of everything else

45

Can we grow all bacteria in pure culture?

Nope! Not even a little bit!

46

what kind of bacteria usually affect humans (only one we'll talk about temp wise)

mesophiles
human body temp range is 30-40 degrees

47

what is most food spoilage due to (in the fridge)?

fungi
but some bacteria can live in the fridge too... so they can cause issues too for refrigerated too