7: Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7: Chemotherapy Deck (31):
1

insertion

add one or more base pairs

recombination, phage insertion

2

deletion

loss of one or more base pairs

3

rearrangement

flip regions of DNA
translocation
genes on fringes are affected
Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia
BCR, ABL

4

Gleevec

silver bullet anticancer drug
specific target which is only found in cancer cell

5

Hedgehog

controls left/right polarity in people

6

Ames test

determine if a compound is carcinogenic
fail the ames test, cause cancer

7

performing Ames test

get salmonella histadine auxotrophic mutant... it has to be supplemented w/ histadine (the regular doesn't)
- can't make histadine bc of single nucleotide polymorphism
- look for change BACK to ability to make histadine (due to a mutation caused by the compound)

8

What compounds Ames test is good at finding

compounds that covalently change DNA or modify specificity the DN A polymerae

9

What compounds Ames test is NOT good at finding

identifying carcinogens that are toxic AFTER modification

10

antibiotics

kill bacteria

11

antivirals

INHIBIT (not kill) viruses

12

antiprotozoan, antihelminthic drugs

kill eukaryotic parasites

13

cancer drugs

gleevec
most go after specific function of th cancer... lots of side effects

14

Keys to chemotherapy

kill the pathogen, not the host
exploit differences between the two (ribosomes, peptidoglycan/cell walls, chitin(fungus))

15

penicillin

1928... Fleming
large use starting in 1940

16

Sulfa Drugs

Domagk
testing antimicrobial properties of synthetic chems
was part of a dye
inhibits steptococcal infections

17

kirby bauer table

measure zone of clearance DIAMETER
compare diameter of resistance of organism to determine clinical effectiveness
limited by soluble of compound
clinically sensitive
clinically intermediate
clinically resistant

18

smaller diameter kirby bauer...

need higher conc of chemical to kill bacteria
can you deliver that conc of chemical to target in body? determine sensitivity/resistivity this way
don't kill the host

19

E Test (Epsilometer)

bacteria on strip not disc
measure number where the zones of clearance intersect
this is the conc of drug that will INHIBIT growth
MIC

20

MIC

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
lowest conc of drug that will inhibit bacterial growth

21

Broth Dilution Test

incubate bact. in different concs of drug in broth
MLC

22

MLC

minimum lethal concentration
min amount of bact. to kill

23

broth dilution data

the conc in the well RIGHT BEFORE growth is the MIC

if growth in all wells, completely resistant
if growth in no wells, completely sensitive

24

limitations of broth dilution, kirby, and E test

the human body

target conc... where is pathogen and how much do we need to add to pill to get the right conc to the right target?

intracellular pathogens

topical vs. internal

some places of body hard to deliver drugs to (blood brain barrier)

25

side effects of chemotherapy

add lots of antibiotics, kill lots of bacteria, let yeast grow... THRUSH (yeast infection)

C. diff in hispitals

change to digestive tract flora

LPS release--inflamation, endotoxin

26

LPS release as a side effect of chemotherapy

very inflammatory molecule
released when gram neg bact dies
inflammation over whole body
sepsis... gram neg bact in bloodstream, give antibiotics, kill and then release all the LPS... shock.... you die

27

bacteriocidal

kill

28

bacteriostatic

stops growth
let immune system do clean up
gentler

29

broad vs. narrow spectrum

know exactly what causes something? Use narrow, may have less side effects
broad kills a lot of bacteria, use if we don't know whats causing disease

30

psedomonads

subset of gram neg
very hard to kill
immunocompromised people
resistant to many antibiotics

31

penicillin

inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis