Flashcards in 1 - Civil War Deck (63):
How many troops did the Communists have at the start?
How many people were under Communist control?
What changes did Mao bring in?
Land reform, new government, educational health committees
How many troops did the nationalists have at the start of the war?
What were GMD problems?
Chiang a weak leader, poor tactics, poorly disciplined troops, desertion, factions, alliance with USA made them look weak
How many rules for discipline and points for attention did Mao have since 1928?
3 rules for discipline, 8 points for attention
How many landlords are expected to have been attacked during the reign of terror and land reforms?
How many troops did the Communists have by 1948?
What mistakes did Chiang make in Manchuria?
Sent troops before North had been secured, not enough men, not enough supplies
Where did the Communists gain experience of managing a city?
How much had prices risen by 1946?
When did Chiang attempt to resolve economic issues?
What change came into place to do with currency?
Gold Yuan rationing
How much aid did the USA provide?
How many military training camps did the USSR make to aid Communists?
How long did the ceasefire last?
4 months, initially meant to ask 2 weeks
Where was the Communist base area?
When did the Civil War begin?
When did the Red Army move into Manchuria?
8th August 1945
When did Marshall agree a ceasefire?
Why did the ceasefire fail and when did Marshall go home?
GMD tried to alter terms of contract to be autocratic rulers, other parties withdrew support - Marshall home in Jan 1947
Where was the 'corridor' the GMD occupied?
Manchuria - from Jinzhou to Changchun
Why did the communists lose Yan'an early in the Civil War?
Because Lin Biao had already moved the Eighth Route Army northwards towards Manchuria
How many troops did Chiang commit to capturing Manchuria?
When did the Communists have a strong enough hold of Manchuria to go on the offensive?
When did the communists first use conventional warfare and what happened?
May 1947 - inefficient without airforce. However still inflicted serious damage on GMD
When did the PLA finally turn to conventional warfare successfully?
When was Luoyang, along the Yellow River captured?
When was Kaifeng captured?
When was Jinan captured?
When was the railway junction at Jinzhou captured?
15 October 1947
When were Changchun and Shenyang captured?
S- 2nd November
What were impacts for GMD of losing the battle over Manchuria?
400,000 troops lost, damage to moral incalculable
What were the two offensives launched after victory in Manchuria?
Against Beijing and against Xuzhou
How long did the battle at Xuzhou last?
How many troops were committed to each side at Xuzhou?
What happened in the offence against Beijing?
PLA moved to Tianjin to the south of Beijing, cutting it off in Jan 1949. Beijing was captured on 31 Jan 1949 with little resistance
What happened in spring 1949?
Lull in fighting. PLA rested troops while consolidating power in north. Communist led government set up in northern China
When was Nanjing captured?
23 April 1949
When was Shanghai captured?
Where did Dehuai's forces attack in May and what was the result?
Xi'an and Lanzhou, both captured in August 1949
Where did Lin Biao's forces attack and what was the result?
Guangzhou, captured October and Guingzhou and Chonqing, captured in November
How many artillery pieces did the GMD have in 1945?
How many artillery pieces did the Communists have in 1945?
What did Stilwell call Chiang?
"A grasping, bigoted, ungrateful little rattlesnake"
What were military strengths and weaknesses of the GMD?
Strengths: larger, better equipped army
Weaknesses: poorly trained, lacked moral and discipline
What were territorial strengths and weaknesses of the GMD?
Strengths: controlled the majority of land, most of the main cities, the rail and water ways
Weaknesses: Warlords wanted to reclaim their regions
What were strengths and weaknesses in foreign support of GMD?
Strengths: Americans supplied arms and offered transport
Weaknesses: people thought foreign aids went against nationalism
What were strengths and weaknesses of GMD popular support?
Strengths: Nationalism, democracy and livelihoods were liked
Weaknesses: failed to deliver promises, assassinations, torture and executions
What did Mao say about the PLA and the people?
'The army and the people are one'
When was land reform introduced in Yan'an?
What happened to land reforms in 1945?
Became more cautious, taxes introduced
When did land reforms return?
Why did Mao have to limit land reform?
As rallies became violent
How many troops and artillery pieces did the CPC have in June 1948?
1.5million troops and 22.8k artillery peices
How many troops and artillery pieces did the GMD have in June 1948?
2.2million troops and 21,000 artillery pieces
When and where did Mao establish himself as undisputed CPC leader?
Yan'an in 1945
How did foreign support aid Mao?
Red Army in Manchuria from Aug 1945 to May 1946, trained PLA in USSR or in 16 new bases, America helped indirectly through organising ceasefire
What were military reasons for GMD loss?
Troops lacked morale and discipline, poorly trained, conscripted, no incentives, known for brutality
What were political reasons for GMD loss?
Officials abused power, bribery and extortion. Tax never reached government, led to debt
What were economic reasons for GMD loss?
May 1946 inflation 1000%, 1949 inflation 10000%, demand for higher wages drove prices up, GMD economy collapsed in 1948
Why did GMD fail due to leadership?
Chiang tried to control everyone, even though his decisions were impractical and contradictory