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Flashcards in 1 - Civil War Deck (63):
0

How many troops did the Communists have at the start?

320,000

1

How many people were under Communist control?

90 million

2

What changes did Mao bring in?

Land reform, new government, educational health committees

3

How many troops did the nationalists have at the start of the war?

2.8 million

4

What were GMD problems?

Chiang a weak leader, poor tactics, poorly disciplined troops, desertion, factions, alliance with USA made them look weak

5

How many rules for discipline and points for attention did Mao have since 1928?

3 rules for discipline, 8 points for attention

6

How many landlords are expected to have been attacked during the reign of terror and land reforms?

16 million

7

How many troops did the Communists have by 1948?

1.56 million

8

What mistakes did Chiang make in Manchuria?

Sent troops before North had been secured, not enough men, not enough supplies

9

Where did the Communists gain experience of managing a city?

Harbin

10

How much had prices risen by 1946?

1000%

11

When did Chiang attempt to resolve economic issues?

Summer 1948

12

What change came into place to do with currency?

Gold Yuan rationing

13

How much aid did the USA provide?

3billion

14

How many military training camps did the USSR make to aid Communists?

16

15

How long did the ceasefire last?

4 months, initially meant to ask 2 weeks

16

Where was the Communist base area?

Yanan

17

When did the Civil War begin?

1946

18

When did the Red Army move into Manchuria?

8th August 1945

19

When did Marshall agree a ceasefire?

Jan 1946

20

Why did the ceasefire fail and when did Marshall go home?

GMD tried to alter terms of contract to be autocratic rulers, other parties withdrew support - Marshall home in Jan 1947

21

Where was the 'corridor' the GMD occupied?

Manchuria - from Jinzhou to Changchun

22

Why did the communists lose Yan'an early in the Civil War?

Because Lin Biao had already moved the Eighth Route Army northwards towards Manchuria

23

How many troops did Chiang commit to capturing Manchuria?

500,000

24

When did the Communists have a strong enough hold of Manchuria to go on the offensive?

Spring 1947

25

When did the communists first use conventional warfare and what happened?

May 1947 - inefficient without airforce. However still inflicted serious damage on GMD

26

When did the PLA finally turn to conventional warfare successfully?

1948

27

When was Luoyang, along the Yellow River captured?

April 1948

28

When was Kaifeng captured?

June 1948

29

When was Jinan captured?

September 1948

30

When was the railway junction at Jinzhou captured?

15 October 1947

31

When were Changchun and Shenyang captured?

C- October
S- 2nd November

32

What were impacts for GMD of losing the battle over Manchuria?

400,000 troops lost, damage to moral incalculable

33

What were the two offensives launched after victory in Manchuria?

Against Beijing and against Xuzhou

34

How long did the battle at Xuzhou last?

65 days

35

How many troops were committed to each side at Xuzhou?

600,000

36

What happened in the offence against Beijing?

PLA moved to Tianjin to the south of Beijing, cutting it off in Jan 1949. Beijing was captured on 31 Jan 1949 with little resistance

37

What happened in spring 1949?

Lull in fighting. PLA rested troops while consolidating power in north. Communist led government set up in northern China

38

When was Nanjing captured?

23 April 1949

39

When was Shanghai captured?

Late May

40

Where did Dehuai's forces attack in May and what was the result?

Xi'an and Lanzhou, both captured in August 1949

41

Where did Lin Biao's forces attack and what was the result?

Guangzhou, captured October and Guingzhou and Chonqing, captured in November

42

How many artillery pieces did the GMD have in 1945?

6,000

43

How many artillery pieces did the Communists have in 1945?

600

44

What did Stilwell call Chiang?

"A grasping, bigoted, ungrateful little rattlesnake"

45

What were military strengths and weaknesses of the GMD?

Strengths: larger, better equipped army
Weaknesses: poorly trained, lacked moral and discipline

46

What were territorial strengths and weaknesses of the GMD?

Strengths: controlled the majority of land, most of the main cities, the rail and water ways
Weaknesses: Warlords wanted to reclaim their regions

47

What were strengths and weaknesses in foreign support of GMD?

Strengths: Americans supplied arms and offered transport
Weaknesses: people thought foreign aids went against nationalism

48

What were strengths and weaknesses of GMD popular support?

Strengths: Nationalism, democracy and livelihoods were liked
Weaknesses: failed to deliver promises, assassinations, torture and executions

49

What did Mao say about the PLA and the people?

'The army and the people are one'

50

When was land reform introduced in Yan'an?

1930s

51

What happened to land reforms in 1945?

Became more cautious, taxes introduced

52

When did land reforms return?

1946

53

Why did Mao have to limit land reform?

As rallies became violent

54

How many troops and artillery pieces did the CPC have in June 1948?

1.5million troops and 22.8k artillery peices

55

How many troops and artillery pieces did the GMD have in June 1948?

2.2million troops and 21,000 artillery pieces

56

When and where did Mao establish himself as undisputed CPC leader?

Yan'an in 1945

57

How did foreign support aid Mao?

Red Army in Manchuria from Aug 1945 to May 1946, trained PLA in USSR or in 16 new bases, America helped indirectly through organising ceasefire

58

What were military reasons for GMD loss?

Troops lacked morale and discipline, poorly trained, conscripted, no incentives, known for brutality

59

What were political reasons for GMD loss?

Officials abused power, bribery and extortion. Tax never reached government, led to debt

60

What were economic reasons for GMD loss?

May 1946 inflation 1000%, 1949 inflation 10000%, demand for higher wages drove prices up, GMD economy collapsed in 1948

61

Why did GMD fail due to leadership?

Chiang tried to control everyone, even though his decisions were impractical and contradictory

62

What mistake did Mao make in November 1945?

Overruled Liu Shaoqi and ordered PLA to defend pass between China and Manchuria - which they hadn't been trained for. Ended up overran by GMD forces and reverted to Shaoqi's original plan