Flashcards in 6 - Aftermath of the Great Leap Forward Deck (56):
How many people died as a result of the GLF?
Official estimate - 20 million
Chang and Halliday - 38 million
What percentage of Xizang (Tibet) was wiped out during the famine?
How much did the death rate increase by in Beijing - the best supplied city?
Where did the PLA have to be deployed to deal with rebellion amongst the peasants?
Western provinces such as Sichuan and Xizang
Why were labour camps expanded?
To accommodate peasants found hiding food destined for requisition or trying to cultivate food for themselves
How much wheat was imported in 1961 and where from?
6 million tonnes; mainly from Canada and Australia, also indirectly from USA
When was the building of Tiananmen Square completed?
When did China make it's first atomic bomb?
When did Mao step down as Chairman?
Who replaced Mao as head of state?
When did Peng Dehuai visit his hometown?
1959 (Niaoshi in Henan)
When did Peng try to voice his concerns about the GLF to Mao?
Central Committee at Lashun in July 1959
How did Peng voice his concern?
In a 'letter of opinion'
What was Mao's response to the letter?
Angry, published it and used it as an opportunity to destroy Peng's career
What did Mao say about Peng?
Charged him with having deviated from the general line, denounced him as a 'rightist'
What did the Politburo find Peng guilty of?
'Objectively aiding China's enemies' and leading a 'right-opportunist anti-Party clique'
What happened to Peng after the Politburo found him guilty?
Dismissed as Defence Minister and placed under virtual house arrest. Kept place in Politburo but never attended another meeting
Who replaced Peng?
When was the Second Great Leap Forward launched?
How many people were subject to struggle meetings as Mao attempted to remove 'rightists'?
What percentage of basic level cadres in Sichuan were dismissed from the party?
When were communal canteens abandoned?
What changes came in July 1961?
Peasants allowed to cultivate their own land, incentives introduced to work harder, rural fairs and markets were again allowed, communes broken down based on single villages
How many people that had drifted to the cities were returned home to their villages by 1962?
How many inefficient businesses that were set up under Mao were closed down?
What did Chen Yi say about intellectuals?
'China needs intellectuals... Those who have been treated unfairly should be returned to the position they deserve'
When did Chen Yun learn about peasant grievances?
In 1961 on a visit to a Shanghai commune
Who was responsible for drawing up the Third Five Year Plan?
When was the Third Five Year Plan launched?
What changes had been made to fix the GLF failings?
Central bureaucracy replaced decentralisation, experts were again valued, production targets were reviewed annually and made more flexible, financial incentives reintroduced
When was the level of agricultural production back up to that of 1957?
How much did output of light and heavy industry increase by?
Light - up 27%
Heavy - up 17%
How much did oil production grow by?
How much did natural gas production grow by?
When was the 7,000 cadre conference?
What happened at the 7,000 cadre conference?
Liu Shaoqi blamed the 'party centre', which included Mao, for the failings of the GLF
Why did Mao withdraw from public life?
His infallibility was challenged due to his self criticisms
Who was left in charge after Mao withdrew from public life?
Liu, Deng (CPC General Secretary), Enlai (Prime Minister.
What did Deng say in June 1962?
'It doesn't matter if the cat is black or white; if the cat catches the mouse, it is a good cat'
What did Liu, Deng and Chen Yun prioritise?
Getting the country back on it's feet - even if there was some ideological compromise. Also wanted to ally with USA and USSR
What did Mao say when he returned at the annual summer conference in 1962?
'Are we going to take the socialist road or the capitalist road?'
What slogan did Mao use to rally against Liu and Deng?
'Oppose revisionism (abroad), prevent revisionism (at home)'
When was the Socialist Education Movement launched?
What did the a Socialist Education Movement promote?
Collective economy and superiority of Socialism
Who was sent out to rural areas to investigate rural leadership and why?
10,000 cadres in order to root out corruption and economic crimes
Why was Mao opposed to Liu being his chosen successor by 1962?
His critical speech at 7,000 cadre conference and his pragmaticism
What did Mao say about Liu and Deng?
Liu 'taking the socialist road' and being a non-Marxist. Deng 'running an independent kingdom'
Who published the Little Red Book?
Lin Biao, given to Red Army
What Maoist ideas did the Little Red Book focus on?
Self-sacrifice, self-reliance and continuing the revolution
When did Lin Biao abolish ranks in the PLA and why?
1965 made it seem like an advanced egalitarian organisation - a model for China to follow
Where did Biao extend the PLA's influence to in 1965?
Schools, factories and cultural life
Where were Quing's allies based?
Why were Qing's allies useful to Mao?
They were more radical
When did Mao move to Shanghai?
What were the positions of Chen Boda and Kang Sheng?
Boda: Mao's secretary
Sheng: Leading Party ideologist