Flashcards in 9 - Aftermath of the Cultural Revolution Deck (40):
What were the factions and power groups after the Cultural Revolution?
Lin Biao and the PLA, Jiand Quing and the Shanghai Radicals, Zhou Enlai and the bureaucracy
What happened in 1969 that raised the prestige of the PLA?
Clashed with USSR troops on the Sino-Soviet border, seen as defenders of the nation
Mao was getting worried about PLA influence, what did he say they should do?
'The PLA should learn from the people of the whole nation'
What did Lin Biao call Mao at the Ninth Party Congress?
A 'genius' - 'Chairman Mao charts the course. In our work we do no more than follow his wake'
What changed between Mao and Lin Biao by the Ninth Party Congress?
Prior, Lin was passive and compliant, however after the Congress he became more confident and self important
How did the end of the Cultural Revolution effect the radicals?
Lessened their influence. CRG wound up in 1969, 'ultra left' policies withdrawn, however Mao gave the radicals control over Central Committee's Organisation and Propaganda Group in November 1970
How many died in the Sino-Soviet clash in March 1969?
100 Soviets and 800 Chinese
What did Mao criticise the PLA of in 1969?
'Carelessness' and 'arrogance' in the purge of party cadres
In Mao's eyes, what was Lin Biao becoming?
A Chinese Bonaparte
When did strains between Lin and Mao become more apparent?
In 1970 when they met to discuss a new State constitution
What did Mao want to do to the role of State Chairman?
Remove it, vacant since fall of Liu Shaoqi. Lin persuaded Mao to keep the position - growing suspicion
What did Mao do due to being angry and Lin's alliance with Chen Boda?
Mao denounced Boda for factionalism when he attacked Zhang Chunqiao for opposing Lin. Arrested him and forced to self criticise
When did Mao decide to move against Lin Biao?
End of 1970
What did Mao call his wearing down of Lin's power base?
'Throwing stones, mixing sand, and digging up the cornerstone'
What did 'throwing stones' mean?
Forcing Lin's allies to make self criticisms
What dod 'mixing in sand' mean?
Undermining Lin's control of the Military Affairs Commission by adding Mao loyalists to the body
What did 'digging up the cornerstone' mean?
Reorganising the key Beijing military region
What did Lin decide to do in February 1971?
Noticed his position was untenable - fought back. Got his son, Lin Lugo to start pressuring for a possible coup
When did Lin realise that a clash with Mao was coming to a head?
September 1971 - now ordered his son to activate plans for a coup
How did Mao manage to avoid Lin?
Concealed his whereabouts and called military leaders for crisis talks
What did Lin Biao and his son decide to do with their coup?
Scrapped it - fell back on their plan to flee to the south and start a new regime in Guandong
Why did Lin Biao and Lin Lugo's plan fail?
Word of it reached Zhou Enlai. He attempted to stop the plane taking off, however only stopped it from fully refuelling
What happened to Lin's plane?
Crashed in Outer Mongolia killing all eight people on board
What was Lin denounced as, following his death?
A 'renegade and traitor' who had been working as a Soviet agent
What happened to senior figures in the PLA after the fall of Lin Biao?
Key commanders who allied with Lin Biao were purged, his son's allies also purged. However PLA still retained a powerful presence
What happened to Mao's health as a result of Lin's betrayal?
Was bed ridden for two months - never fully recovered
How did the fall of Lin Biao impact Mao's reputation?
Questioned his judgement of character and revealed that the higher echelons of the CPC were riddled with intrigue
Why were there no logical candidates for Mao's successor after Lin?
Zhou was too moderate and too old, Jiang Quing was too widely hated, Zhang Chunqiao was too radical and didn't have the stature to command respect
What did Mao say about Jiang Qing in 1974?
Told the Politburo, 'she does not represent me, she only represents herself'
What did the CPC officially call Lin Biao in 1972?
A 'sham Marxist political swindler' who had cunningly inticed ultra-left trends of thought'
Why was the CPC statement on Lin a coded criticism?
Could equally be applied to Jiang and the radicals
How did Zhou use his position?
Restored order and discipline, thereby increasing production
What were Zhou's Four Modernisations?
Development of agriculture, industry, national defence, and science and technology
When did Zhou open talks with Nixon over reopening relations and what was the result?
1972. Some relaxation of cultural policy, for example Western orchestras allowed to visit China
What did Zhou do in 1973 regarding education?
Reintroduced exams as criteria for university entry
Who was chosen to attend the farewell banquet for Nixon and what did it show?
Zhang Chunqiao, showed Mao's support for radicals
What did Mao say about Lin's betrayal in 1973?
It wasn't because he was an ultra leftist - he adopted a 'left appearance to disguise right essence'. This removed Mao and the radicals from any blame to do with Lin
What happened by the Tenth Party Congress in August 1973?
Radicals recaptured the high ground and appeared to be consolidating power within the party hierarchy.
How many allies did the radicals and Zhou have in the Standing Committee?
Radicals had three, Zhou had just one